NRNP 6635 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

NRNP 6635 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

NRNP 6635 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology
Biological, psychological, socio-cultural, and interpersonal factors influence psychopathology. Biological factors include genetics, neurotransmitters, neurophysiology, and neuroanatomy. Impairment of the neurotransmitter network system alters the function of the nervous system and causes mental disorders like psychosis and depression (Boland et al., 2022). Abnormalities in the neurotransmitters such as serotonin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and GABA have been associated with the development of mental disorders (Lebowitz et al., 2019). Concerning genetics, psychopathology disorders are thought to have unique, immutable essences located in the brain or DNA. They are attributed to the abnormal symptoms and behavior of patients.

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Psychological factors include financial stress, which is associated with mental disorders among low-income individuals. Developmental factors like exposure to domestic violence, bullying, and child abuse have been linked to mental disorders (Kalin, 2020). This explains why people who have experienced negative and stressful life events have a high prevalence of mental disorders, like mood and anxiety disorders. A low socioeconomic status, living in unsafe neighborhoods, and living in areas with limited access to healthcare services increases individuals’ level of psychological stress, which contributes to psychopathology.
The development of psychopathology is linked to cultural factors like cultural beliefs, norms, and practices. Bhugra et al. (2021) explain that culture influences how individuals experience distress, how they express distress, and where they seek help. Therefore, people from cultures with ineffective ways of expressing distress and seeking help have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, some mental disorders are more prevalent in one gender. For example, men have a higher prevalence of personality disorders, while females have a higher prevalence of depressive disorders. Interpersonal factors include a person’s coping strategies and level of self-esteem. Persons with ineffective coping mechanisms and low self-esteem have a higher risk of developing mental disorders.

References
Bhugra, D., Watson, C., & Wijesuriya, R. (2021). Culture and mental illnesses. International Review of Psychiatry, 33(1-2), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2020.1777748
Boland, R. & Verduin, M. L. & Ruiz, P. (2022). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (12th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
Kalin, N. H. (2020). Early-life environmental factors impacting the development of psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19111181
Lebowitz, M. S., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2019). Biomedical Explanations of Psychopathology and Their Implications for Attitudes and Beliefs about Mental Disorders. Annual review of clinical psychology, 15, 555–577. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095416

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken. An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Boland, Verduin, & Ruiz, 2022).

Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?

RESOURCES

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.

Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

LEARNING RESOURCES

Required Readings

Boland, R. & Verduin, M. L. & Ruiz, P. (2022). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (12th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Chapter 32 “Normal Development and Aging”

Chapter 33, “Contributions from the Neurosciences”

Chapter 34, “Contributions from the Behavioral and Social Sciences”

Chapter 31 “Global and Cultural Issues in Psychiatry”

Chapter 35 “A Brief History of Psychiatry”

Butcher, J. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Introduction to childhood and adolescent psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathologyLinks to an external site.., Vol. 2. (pp. 3–14). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-001

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1Links to an external site.. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-006

Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1Links to an external site.. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-004

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2Links to an external site.. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

Document: NRNP 6635 Mid-term Study Guide

TO PREPARE:

Review this week’s Learning Resources, considering the many interacting factors that contribute to the development of psychopathology.

Consider how theoretical perspective on psychopathology impacts the work of the PMHNP.

BY DAY 3 OF WEEK 1

Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses

BY DAY 6 OF WEEK 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by explaining the implications of why, as an advanced practice nurse, it is important to adopt a multidimensional, integrative model of psychopathology.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

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NRNP_6635_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

NRNP_6635_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMain Posting:Response to the discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

44 to >39.0 pts

Excellent

Thoroughly responds to the discussion question(s). … Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. … No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth. … Supported by at least 3 current credible sources.

39 to >34.0 pts

Good

Responds to most of the discussion question(s). … Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. … 50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth. … Supported by at least 3 credible references.

34 to >30.0 pts

Fair

Responds to some of the discussion question(s). … One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed. … Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. … Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. … Post is cited with fewer than 2 credible references.

30 to >0 pts

Poor

Does not respond to the discussion question(s). … Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria. … Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. … Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. … Contains only 1 or no credible references.

44 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMain Posting: Writing

6 to >5.0 pts
Excellent

Written clearly and concisely. … Contains no grammatical or spelling errors. … Further adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

5 to >4.0 pts
Good

Written concisely. … May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors. … Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

4 to >3.0 pts
Fair

Written somewhat concisely. … May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors. … Contains some APA formatting errors.

3 to >0 pts
Poor

Not written clearly or concisely. … Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors. … Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

6 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMain Posting: Timely and full participation

10 to >8.0 pts

Excellent

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation. … Posts main discussion by due date.

8 to >7.0 pts
Good

Posts main discussion by due date. … Meets requirements for full participation.

7 to >6.0 pts

Fair

Posts main discussion by due date.

6 to >0 pts
Poor

Does not meet requirements for full participation. … Does not post main discussion by due date.

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFirst Response: Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

9 to >8.0 pts
Excellent

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. … Responds to questions posed by faculty. … The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

8 to >7.0 pts

Good

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

7 to >6.0 pts

Fair

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

6 to >0 pts

Poor

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

9 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFirst Response: Writing

6 to >5.0 pts

Excellent

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. … Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. … Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. … Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

5 to >4.0 pts

Good

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues. … Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed. … Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources. … Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

4 to >3.0 pts

Fair

Response posed in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. … Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. … Few or no credible sources are cited.

3 to >0 pts

Poor

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective communication. … Response to faculty questions are missing. … No credible sources are cited.

6 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFirst Response: Timely and full participation

5 to >4.0 pts
Excellent

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation. … Posts by due date.

4 to >3.0 pts

Good

Meets requirements for full participation. … Posts by due date.

3 to >2.0 pts

Fair

Posts by due date.

2 to >0 pts
Poor

Does not meet requirements for full participation. … Does not post by due date.

5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSecond Response: Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

9 to >8.0 pts

Excellent

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. … Responds to questions posed by faculty. … The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

8 to >7.0 pts
Good

Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.

7 to >6.0 pts

Fair

Response is on topic, may have some depth.

6 to >0 pts

Poor

Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.

9 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSecond Response: Writing

6 to >5.0 pts

Excellent

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. … Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. … Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. … Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

5 to >4.0 pts

Good

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues. … Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed. … Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources. … Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

4 to >3.0 pts
Fair

Response posed in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. … Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. … Few or no credible sources are cited.

3 to >0 pts
Poor

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective communication. … Response to faculty questions are missing. … No credible sources are cited.

6 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSecond Response: Timely and full participation

5 to >4.0 pts
Excellent

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation. … Posts by due date.

4 to >3.0 pts
Good

Meets requirements for full participation. … Posts by due date.

3 to >2.0 pts

Fair

Posts by due date.

2 to >0 pts
Poor

Does not meet requirements for full participation. … Does not post by due date.

5 pts

Total Points: 100

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