NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology Essay

NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology Essay

NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology Essay

Factors Influencing Development of Psychopathology

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NRNP 6635 Discussion Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology Essay
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Factors Influencing Development of Psychopathology
Psychopathology refers to the study of mental disorders and use of different approaches to treat them. Factors that include biological, psychological, cognitive, emotional, developmental, social, cultural, and interpersonal factors influence the development of psychopathology. An in-depth understanding of these factors is crucial for nurse practitioners to adopt effective treatment for the patients. Therefore, this essay examines the interaction between these factors and the development of psychopathology.

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Genetics play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Gene-environment interactions alongside epigenetics have been associated with some mental disorders. For example, individuals born to families with a history of mental health problems are at risk of mental health diseases because of the role of genes. Neuroscientific perspective considers the development of psychopathology as a product of a problem in the brain (Harden et al., 2020). For example, hormonal and neurotransmitter imbalance contribute to the development of mental health problems such as major depression.
Psychological factors also contribute to the development of psychopathology. Different behavioral states such as stress affect brain functioning, which increase the risk of mental health problems. The physiological stress response may be impaired in persistent and prolonged exposure to stress, which cause psychopathology. Stress also affects cognition processes such as information storage, processing, transformation, recovery, and use. Developmental issues such as exposure to childhood trauma and social isolation also influence psychopathology (Klein et al., 2022).
Social issues also contribute to psychopathology. Social factors such as poverty, environmental deprivation, inequality, and violence within communities increase the risk of people developing mental health problems. Aspects such as social class, gender, household patterns, and ethnicity also influence the development of mental health disorders. Cultural factors such as social norms, gender roles, and traditions can affect mental health. Cultural beliefs and practices influence population’s attitude towards mental health and mental health services, hence, psychopathology (Fonagy et al., 2022; Zhang et al., 2020). Interpersonal factors such as substance and drug abuse and access to and affordability of mental healthcare services affect diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of mental health problems.
In summary, biological, psychological, social, cultural, and interpersonal factors influence the development of psychopathology. The interaction of these factors with environmental risks elevates the risk of psychopathology. Therefore, psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners should be able to implement interventions that minimize the risk of these factors in their practice.
References
Fonagy, P., Campbell, C., Constantinou, M., Higgitt, A., Allison, E., & Luyten, P. (2022). Culture and psychopathology: An attempt at reconsidering the role of social learning. Development and Psychopathology, 34(4), 1205–1220. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579421000092
Harden, K. P., Engelhardt, L. E., Mann, F. D., Patterson, M. W., Grotzinger, A. D., Savicki, S. L., Thibodeaux, M. L., Freis, S. M., Tackett, J. L., Church, J. A., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2020). Genetic Associations Between Executive Functions and a General Factor of Psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(6), 749–758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.05.006
Klein, R. J., Nguyen, N. D., Gyorda, J. A., & Jacobson, N. C. (2022). Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Future Psychopathology: A Prospective Transdiagnostic Analysis. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 32(4), 1592–1611. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12743
Zhang, H., Lee, Z. X., White, T., & Qiu, A. (2020). Parental and social factors in relation to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognitive function. Translational Psychiatry, 10(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0761-6

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Factors that Influence the Development of Psychopathology

In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken. An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, two, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Boland, Verduin, & Ruiz, 2022).

Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?

Learning Resources

Boland, R. & Verduin, M. L. & Ruiz, P. (2022). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (12th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Chapter 32 “Normal Development and Aging”

Chapter 33, “Contributions from the Neurosciences”

Chapter 34, “Contributions from the Behavioral and Social Sciences”

Chapter 31 “Global and Cultural Issues in Psychiatry”

Chapter 35 “A Brief History of Psychiatry”

Butcher, J. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Introduction to childhood and adolescent psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathologyLinks to an external site.., Vol. 2. (pp. 3–14). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-001

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1Links to an external site.. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-006

Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1Links to an external site.. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-004

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2Links to an external site.. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association. https://go.openathens.net/redirector/waldenu.edu?url=https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

To prepare:

Review this week’s Learning Resources, considering the many interacting factors that contribute to the development of psychopathology.

Consider how the theoretical perspective on psychopathology impacts the work of the PMHNP.

Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

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