Assignment; NURS 6521 week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Assignment; NURS 6521 week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Assignment; NURS 6521 week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Nur 6521 Week 8 Discussion

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is among the most common mental health disorders, which makes those affected have undesirable symptoms such as anxiety, sweating, difficulty sleeping, and rapid breathing, among others. Anxiolytic medications have been used for a long time as a treatment modality for GAD(Fagan & Baldwin, 2023). An example of such a medication is Buspirone. Effective use of such medications requires that a practitioner develops an adequate understanding of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics related to them. For example, Buspirone is known to work through the inhibition of serotonin release. Such an action decreases the activation of postsynaptic serotonin receptors (Rosenthal et al.,2021). As such, the patient’s GAD symptoms and mood substantially improve. The medication is orally administered and has no abuse potential since it’s not sedative. It is also known that renal and hepatic impairment causes an enhanced amount of serum BuSpar in the bloodstream. However, factors like gender and age play no substantial role in Buspirone pharmacokinetics.

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Other Treatment Options

Apart from the use of anxiolytic medications, there are also other medication classes used in the treatment of GAD. For example, Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), which are antidepressants, have been used widely in the treatment of GAD. Some of the medications used in this class include escitalopram and paroxetine (Kaveiy et al., 2023). As opposed to anxiolytics, these classes of drugs act by inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters through selective receptors. As such, the reuptake increases the concentration of particular neurotransmitters around the nerves in the brain. Benzodiazepines have also been used to a lower extent. These medications have sedative properties and are used to help relieve acute anxiety symptoms in the short term. In comparison to anxiolytics, these medications are effective in relieving the symptoms. However, they may enhance habits such as drug abuse.

References

Fagan, H. A., & Baldwin, D. S. (2023). Pharmacological Treatment of Generalised Anxiety Disorder: Current Practice and Future Directions. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2023.2211767

Kaveiy, M., Toozandejani, H., Taher, M., & Zendehdel, A. (2023). Comparing the effectiveness of modular cognitive-behavioral therapy,‎‏‏ pharmacotherapy (paroxetine) and their combination in intolerance of uncertainty and meta-worry‎ in female university students with generalized anxiety disorder. Razavi International Journal of Medicine11(1). https://dx.doi.org/10.30483/rijm.2023.254446.1263

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

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To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
  • Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
  • Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history with GAD.

Post a discussion of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics related to anxiolytic medications used to treat GAD. In your discussion, utilizing the discussion highlights, compare and contrast different treatment options that can be used.

resources 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

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