Study Guide for Medication Treatment Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychosis Disorders Essay

Study Guide for Medication Treatment Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychosis Disorders Essay

Study Guide for Medication Treatment Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychosis Disorders Essay

Study Guide for Medication Treatment Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychosis Disorders

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Study Guide for Medication Treatment Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychosis Disorders Essay
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Mental illness is known to have various negative impacts on patients’ lives. Among them are schizophrenia spectrum and other psychosis disorders (Jester et al.,2023). These illnesses usually result in undesirable symptoms like delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking or speech, and disorganized or abnormal motor behaviors. As such, the PMHNPs should possess sufficient knowledge concerning these conditions and their symptoms for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and management. Study guides can play a critical role in enhancing a person’s ability to learn about these conditions and their management using antipsychotic agents. Therefore, the purpose of this assignment is to create a study guide that presents the medication treatment for schizophrenia spectrum and other psychosis disorders.

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Drug Description

The chosen medication for this study guide is Quetiapine. This mediation has widely been used in treating schizophrenia (de Miranda et al.,2020). The brand name is Seroquel. The FDA approved this medication to be used in treating schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. 

Non-FDA uses

 Apart from the FDA indications, Seroquel has also been used for non-FDA-approved functions. The non-FDA uses include the following.

  • Treatment of insomnia where low doses are usually given
  • Treatment of alcohol dependence as heavy drinkers has been observed to reduce their drinking tendencies when using the medication (de Miranda et al.,2020)
  • It is also used in the treatment of general anxiety disorder, where lower doses are used.

Drug classification

Seroquel is an antipsychotic under second-generation antipsychotics.

Mechanism of action Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics
It is known to act on the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors. It is also an antagonist for serotonin receptors and D2 receptors. Absorption:

An immediate and extended release of 1.5 hours and 6 hours, respectively (Peak plasma time)

 

The medication blocks the dopamine receptors to help lower incidences of delusions and hallucinations caused by schizophrenia.

 

Acts on dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors. Metabolism: The medication metabolism takes place in the liver by CYP3A4 (Badhan & Macfarlane, 2020)

Elimination:

20% of elimination is through feces, while 73% is through excretion.

 

Recommended dosing:

  • 150-750 mg/day (Immediate release); 400-800 mg/day (extended-release).
  • Children below twelve years: No safety has been established.
  • Children above twelve years: 400-800 mg/day
  • Not recommended for breastfeeding and pregnant women
  • Geriatrics: 50-200 mg/day (Immediate); 50 mg/day (Extended) (de Miranda et al.,2020)

Route of Administration:  The medication is taken through the mouth

Dosing alterations consideration: individuals susceptible to hypotensive reactions and the elderly.

Half-life:  This is the time which is taken by a medication’s concentration to reduced by half of the original concentration in the body. It is important to understand the half-life of medication since it dictates the steady-state concentration and excretion. The half-life for Seroquel is six hours for immediate release and seven hours for extended-release (de Miranda et al.,2020). 

Side Effects and Possible Adverse Reactions

The medication is connected to various side effects and possible adverse reactions, which might be a concern to patients. It is important that a patient is educated regarding the same. They are illustrated below.

Contraindications For Use Including Significant Drug-To-Drug Interactions

  The medication is contraindicated for patients with hypersensitivity. The medication has been shown to pause and increase mortality risk in elderly individuals displaying dementia-connected psychosis. It may interact with medication that, leads to prolonged QT intervals. The medication specifically interacts with Leuprolide, Lefamulin, Goserelin, and Amisupride (Oruch et al.,2020).

Overdose Considerations

  • The medication can lead to death in cases of overdose. Indeed, toxicity may happen with levels higher than 1500 ng/mL.
  • Supportive care has widely been used in treating Seroquel overdose.
  • Measures for acute toxicity include ventilation, sufficient oxygenation, and maintaining the airway (Oruch et al.,2020).
  • Gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal with a laxative can also help in stopping the absorption of the drug if administered.

Diagnostics and labs monitoring

Comorbidities considerations

  • Practitioners should monitor the blood glucose levels of patients with diabetes mellitus to limit the chances of hyperosmolar coma (Osborne et al.,2020).
  • Practitioners should be careful with individuals with hypomagnesemia, cardiac arrhythmia, and hypokalemia and should get a metabolic panel before they can start administering the medication.

Legal and ethical considerations

  • Health practitioners have to uphold the patient’s health information confidentiality as a way of preventing legal issues (Limandri, 2019)
  • It is also important to uphold beneficence by ensuring that administered medication leads to optimum benefits when treating the approved indications for the medication.
  • The practitioners should also consider the side effects of the medication and ensure that the expected benefits outweigh the potential risks hence upholding nonmaleficence.
  • Consent is also required. Therefore, the health practitioners should obtain consent from the patients and ensure that the patient is well informed regarding the potential side effects and adverse effects of Seroquel.

Pertinent Patient Education Considerations

            It is important to explore pertinent patient education considerations when administering Seroquel. As such, the practitioner has to educate the patient regarding various aspects, such as side effects, potential benefits, and indications. The patients should be educated on the need to adhere to the medication regimen and ensure that they see they visit the facility in case of any adverse effects or reactions (de Miranda et al.,2020). 

. In addition, the patient also needs to be informed of the instances when the medication can be discontinued.

Conclusion

This study guide has explored the use of Seroquel, which is an FDA-approved medication for treating schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. The medication also has various non-FDA-approved uses, such as the treatment of insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. The guideline has also explored various aspects such as indications for use, contraindication, potential side effects and adverse reactions, diagnostics and lab monitoring, and various ethical principles to consider.

References

Badhan, R. K., & Macfarlane, H. (2020). Quetiapine dose optimisation during gestation: A pharmacokinetic modelling study. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 72(5), 670–681. https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13236

de Miranda, A. S., Ferreira, R. N., Teixeira, A. L., & de Miranda, A. S. (2020). Mood Stabilizers: Quetiapine. NeuroPsychopharmacotherapy, 1-23.

Jester, D. J., Thomas, M. L., Sturm, E. T., Harvey, P. D., Keshavan, M., Davis, B. J., … & Jeste, D. V. (2023). Review of major social determinants of health in schizophrenia-spectrum psychotic disorders: I. Clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 49(4), 837–850. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbad023

Limandri, B. J. (2019). Ethical Reasoning in Prescribing and Monitoring Psychotropic Medications. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 57(1), 7-10. https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20181212-03

Oruch, R., Pryme, I., Fasmer, O., & Lund, A. (2020). Quetiapine: An objective evaluation of pharmacology, clinical uses and intoxication. EC Pharmacol Toxicol, 8, 1-26. https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=42474663

Osborne, V., Davies, M., Evans, A., & Shakir, S. (2020). Observational assessment of safety in Seroquel (OASIS): a specialist cohort event monitoring (SCEM) study in England. Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology, 10, 2045125320954616. https://doi.org/10.1177/2045125320954616

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Study Guide for Medication Treatment Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychosis Disorders

Psychosis and schizophrenia greatly impact the brain’s normal processes, which interfere with the ability to think clearly. When symptoms of these disorders are uncontrolled, patients may struggle to function in daily life. However, patients often thrive when properly diagnosed and treated under the close supervision of a psychiatric mental health practitioner. For this Assignment, you will develop a study guide for an assigned psychotropic agent for treating patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders. You will share your study guide with your colleagues. In sum, these study guides will be a powerful tool in preparing for your course and PMHNP certification exam.

Resources

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.

Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

To prepare for this Assignment:

Review this week’s Learning Resources, including the Medication Resources indicated for this week.

Reflect on the psychopharmacologic treatments you might recommend for treatment of patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders.

Research your assigned psychotropic medication agent using the Walden Library. Then, develop an organizational scheme for the important information about the medication.

Review Learning Resource: Utah State University. (n.d.). Creating study guides. https://www.usu.edu/academic-support/test/creating_study_guides

Links to an external site.

The Assignment

Create a study guide for your assigned psychotropic medication agents. Your study guide should be in the form of an outline with references, and you should incorporate visual elements such as concept maps, charts, diagrams, images, color coding, mnemonics, and/or flashcards. Be creative! It should not be in the format of an APA paper. Your guide should be informed by the FDA-approved and Evidenced-Based, Clinical Practice Guidelines Research but also supported by at least three other scholarly resources.

Areas of importance you should address, but are not limited to, are:

Title page

Description of the Psychopharmacological medication agent including brand and generic names and appropriate FDA indication uses

Any supporting, valid and reliable research for non-FDA uses

Drug classification

The medication mechanism of action

The medication pharmacokinetics

The medication pharmacodynamics

Mechanism of Action

Appropriate dosing, administration route, and any considerations for dosing alterations

Considerations of use and dosing in specific specialty populations to consider children, adolescents, elderly, pregnancy, suicidal behaviors, etc.

Definition of Half-life, why half-life is important, and the half-life for your assigned medication

Side effects/adverse reaction potentials

Contraindications for use including significant drug to drug interactions

Overdose Considerations

Diagnostics and labs monitoring

Comorbidities considerations

Legal and ethical considerations

Pertinent patient education considerations

Reference Page

Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of five academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement. You should be utilizing the primary and secondary literature.

Reminder : The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting

Links to an external site..

By Day 7

You will need to submit your Assignment to two places: the Week 7 Study Guide discussion forum as an attachment and the Week 7 Assignment submission link. Although no responses are required in the discussion forum, a collegial discussion is welcome. You are encouraged to utilize your peers’ submitted guides on their assigned psychotropic medication agent for study.

submission information

Before submitting your final assignment, you can check your draft for authenticity. To check your draft, access the Turnitin Drafts from the Start Here area.

To submit your completed assignment, save your Assignment as WK7Assgn_LastName_Firstinitial

Then, click on Start Assignment near the top of the page.

Next, click on Upload File and select Submit Assignment for review.

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Rubric

NURS_6630_Week7_Assignment_Rubric

NURS_6630_Week7_Assignment_Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Create a study guide, in outline form with references, for your assigned medication. Incorporate visual elements such as concept maps, charts, diagrams, images, color coding, mnemonics, and/or flashcards.
30 to >26.0 ptsExcellent Point range: 90–100

The response is in a well-organized and detailed outline form. Informative and well-designed visual elements are incorporated. … Followed directions correctly by uploading assignment to Gradebook and submitted to the discussion forum area.

26 to >23.0 ptsGood Point range: 80–89

The response is in an organized and detailed outline form. Appropriate visual elements are incorporated. … Partially followed directions by uploading assignment to Gradebook but did not submit to the discussion forum area.

23 to >20.0 ptsFair Point range: 70–79

The response is in outline form, with some inaccuracies or details missing. Visual elements are somewhat vague or inaccurate. … Partially followed directions by submitting to the discussion forum area but did not upload assignment to Gradebook.

20 to >0 ptsPoor Point range: 0–69

The response is unorganized, not in outline form, or is missing. Visual elements are inaccurate or missing. … Did not follow directions as did not submit to discussion forum area and did not upload assignment to gradebook per late policy.

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Study guide completion elements addressed in Week 7 assignment area
50 to >44.0 ptsExcellent Point range: 90–100

The response thoroughly addresses all required content areas.

44 to >39.0 ptsGood Point range: 80–89

The response adequately addresses all required content areas. Minor details may be missing.

39 to >34.0 ptsFair Point range: 70–79

The response addresses all required content areas, with some inaccuracies or vagueness.

34 to >0 ptsPoor Point range: 0–69

The response vaguely or inaccurately addresses the required content areas. Or, three or more content areas are missing.

50 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Support your guide with references and research providing at least five evidence-based, peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines. Be sure they are current (no more than 5 years old).
10 to >8.0 ptsExcellent Point range: 90–100

The response is supported by the 5 current, evidence-based resources from the literature.

8 to >7.0 ptsGood Point range: 80–89

The response provides at least 4 current, evidence-based resources from the literature that appropriately support the study guide information.

7 to >6.0 ptsFair Point range: 70–79

3 evidence-based resources are provided to support the study guide, but they may only provide vague or weak justification.

6 to >0 ptsPoor Point range: 0–69

2 or fewer resources are provided to support assessment and diagnosis decisions. The resources may not be current or evidence-based.

10 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 to >4.0 ptsExcellent Point range: 90–100

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 to >3.5 ptsGood Point range: 80–89

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3.5 to >3.0 ptsFair Point range: 70–79

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3 to >0 ptsPoor Point range: 0–69

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
5 to >4.0 ptsExcellent Point range: 90–100

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 to >3.5 ptsGood Point range: 80–89

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3.5 to >3.0 ptsFair Point range: 70–79

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

3 to >0 ptsPoor Point range: 0–69

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

5 pts
Total Points: 100

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