Week 6 Assignment 2 Human Genetics

Week 6 Assignment 2 Human Genetics

Week 6 Assignment 2 Human Genetics

From your course textbook Case Workbook to Accompany Human Genetics: Concepts and Applications, read the assigned case study in the following chapters:

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Week 6 Assignment 2 Human Genetics
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

· Chapters 9–12, Questions #21–24

In a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document, create a work sheet by answering the Questions for Research and Discussion provided for each case study. (Do not answer the multiple-choice questions).

Cite any sources in APA format.

Learning Outcomes

9.1 Experiments Identify and Describe the Genetic Material

1. Describe the experiments that showed that DNA is the genetic material and protein is not.

2. Explain how Watson and Crick deduced the structure of DNA.

9.2 DNA Structure

3. List the components of a DNA nucleotide building block.

4. Explain how nucleotides are joined into two chains to form the strands of a DNA molecule.

9.3 DNA Replication—Maintaining Genetic Information

5. Explain the semiconservative mechanism of DNA replication.

6. List the steps of DNA replication.

7. Explain how the polymerase chain reaction amplifies DNA outside cells.

9.4 Sequencing DNA

8. Explain the basic strategy used to determine the base sequence of a DNA molecule.

9. Explain how next-generation sequencing improves upon Sanger sequencing.

image The BIG Picture

DNA is the basis of life because of three qualities: It holds information, it copies itself, and it changes.

On the Meaning of Gene

To a biologist, gene has a specific definition—a sequence of DNA that tells a cell how to assemble amino acids into a particular protein. To others, “gene” has different meanings:

To folksinger Arlo Guthrie, gene means aging without signs of the Huntington disease that claimed his father, legendary folksinger Woody Guthrie.

To rare cats in New England, gene means extra toes.

To Adolph Hitler and others who have dehumanized those not like themselves, the concept of gene was abused to justify genocide.

To a smoker, a gene may mean lung cancer develops.

To a redhead in a family of brunettes, gene means an attractive variant.

To a woman whose mother and sisters had breast cancer, gene means escape from their fate—and survivor guilt.

To a lucky few, gene means a mutation that locks HIV out of their cells.

To people with diabetes, gene means safer insulin.

To a forensic entomologist, gene means a clue in the guts of maggots devouring a corpse.

To scientists-turned-entrepreneurs, gene means money.

Collectively, our genes mean that we are very much more alike than different from one another.

Page 164

9.1 Experiments Identify and Describe the Genetic Material

“A genetic material must carry out two jobs: duplicate itself and control the development of the rest of the cell in a specific way,” wrote Francis Crick, codiscoverer with James Watson of the three-dimensional structure of DNA in 1953. Only DNA fulfills these requirements.

DNA was first described in the mid-nineteenth century, when Swiss physician and biochemist Friedrich Miescher isolated nuclei from white blood cells in pus on soiled bandages. He discovered in the nuclei, an unusual acidic substance containing nitrogen and phosphorus. He and others found it in cells from a variety of sources. Because the material resided in cell nuclei, Miescher called it nuclein in an 1871 paper; subsequently, it was called a nucleic acid. Few people appreciated the importance of Miescher’s discovery at the time, when inherited disease was widely blamed on protein.

In 1902, English physician Archibald Garrod was the first to provide evidence linking inherited disease and protein. He noted that people who had certain inborn errors of metabolism lacked certain enzymes. Other researchers added evidence of a link between heredity and enzymes from other species, such as fruit flies with unusual eye colors and bread molds with nutritional deficiencies. Both organisms had absent or malfunctioning specific enzymes. As researchers wondered about the connection between enzymes and heredity, they returned to Miescher’s discovery of nucleic acids.

DNA Is the Hereditary Molecule

In 1928, English microbiologist Frederick Griffith took the first step in identifying DNA as the genetic material. He was studying pneumonia in the years after the 1918 flu pandemic. Griffith noticed that mice with a certain form of pneumonia harbored one of two types of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Type R bacteria were rough in texture. Type S bacteria were smooth because they were enclosed in a polysaccharide (a type of carbohydrate) capsule. Mice injected with type R bacteria did not develop pneumonia (figure 9.1a), but mice injected with type S did (figure 9.1b). The polysaccharide coat shielded the bacteria from the mouse immune system, enabling them to cause severe (virulent) infection. Injecting mice with unaltered type R or type S bacteria served as control experiments, which represent the situation without the experimental intervention.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Proscholarly
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NURSE ADVOCATE HEALTHCARE PROGRAM
The absolute best ! Thanks for great communication, quality papers, and amazing time delivery!
Customer 452467, November 14th, 2022
Medicine
This was done very well. Thank you!
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Good work. Will be placing another order tomorrow
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Very fond of the paper written. The topic chosen is defiantly trending at this time
Customer 452495, July 27th, 2023
Medicine
Well researched paper. Excellent work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Great work, Thank you, will come back with more work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat