Statistics Data Analysis:Calculate and Interpret the Data Assignment Paper

Statistics Data Analysis:Calculate and Interpret the Data Assignment Paper

Statistics Data Analysis:Calculate and Interpret the Data Assignment Paper

Calculate and Interpret Data

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Developing more effective drugs is a crucial aspect of advancing medical treatments. Therefore, finding a more effective drug would require an effective trial process that would provide data that points out a safer n better drug.


Part 1

  Younger Adults Younger Adults Older Adults Older Adults
Placebo Drug A Placebo Drug A
Mean  26.4  10.4  26.2  23.4
Median  23  10  29  24
Mode  23  10


When interpreting the mean, mode, and median of two drugs being tested for effectiveness, these statistical measures can provide insights into the central tendencies of the data. The mean represents the average value of a set of data (Zhang et al., 2019). In the context of drug effectiveness, the mean can indicate the average response or outcome of participants who received a particular drug. By comparing the means of two drugs being tested, one can assess which one yields better results on average. In this case, Placebo works best on young adults, while drug A work best on older adults.

 The mode represents the most frequently occurring value in a dataset. In drug effectiveness testing, the mode can indicate the treatment outcome most frequently among participants (Belan, 2020). Comparing the modes of two drugs can give one an idea of the most common response associated with each treatment. On the other hand, the median represents the middle value in a dataset when it is ordered from lowest to highest. It is helpful to assess the central tendency, especially if the data is skewed or has outliers (Fiolet et al., 2022). In the context of effectiveness between drug A and Placebo, the median can provide information about the midpoint of the response distribution.

Part 2

 The above bar graph, interpreting it involves understanding the data being represented, the variables involved, and the patterns or relationships that emerge from the graph. In this bar graph, the length of the bars will be effective in determining the drug’s effectiveness on a particular population (Möller, 2022). Each bar’s height or length represents the data’s magnitude or value for that particular category (Scalia et al., 2021). The greater the height or length, the higher the value associated with that category. In this case, Placebo is effective for both the young and adults. However, it is more effective on the young than adults. On the other hand, comparing the heights or lengths of the bars aids in identifying patterns or relationships within the data (Weissgerber et al., 2019). For instance, one would look for bars significantly different from others, indicating variations in the values across different categories. In this case, the action of drug A on both the young and adults has a significant difference. Drug A is not effective on young adults but comparatively effective on older adults. This relative comparison aids in considering relative differences between the bars. Besides, it aids in focusing on the proportions and ratios rather than absolute values.


Belan, S. (2020). Median and mode in the first passage under restart. Physical Review Research, 2(1), 013243.

Fiolet, T., Kherabi, Y., MacDonald, C. J., Ghosn, J., & Peiffer-Smadja, N. (2022). Comparing COVID-19 vaccines for their characteristics, efficacy, and effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern: a narrative review. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 28(2), 202-221.

Möller, H. J. (2022). Effectiveness studies: advantages and disadvantages. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience.  

Scalia, P., Schubbe, D. C., Lu, E. S., Durand, M. A., Frascara, J., Noel, G., … & Elwyn, G. (2021). Comparing the impact of an icon array versus a bar graph on preference and understanding of risk information: Results from an online, randomized study. Plos one, 16(7), e0253644.

Weissgerber, T. L., Winham, S. J., Heinzen, E. P., Milin-Lazovic, J. S., Garcia-Valencia, O., Bukumiric, Z., … & Milic, N. M. (2019). Reveal, don’t conceal: transforming data visualization to improve transparency. Circulation, 140(18), 1506-1518.

Zhang, R., Wu, T., Wang, R., Wang, D., & Liu, Q. (2019). Compare the efficacy of acupuncture with drugs in the treatment of Bell’s palsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. Medicine, 98(19).


This assignment has two parts, which will be submitted in one document.

For this task, you will calculate the mean, median, and mode for a fictitious data set. These data represent the results of a fictitious study, which investigates whether a new drug (Drug A) is more effective than a placebo (i.e., an inactive substance) in the treatment of depression. The researcher is also interested in whether the effects of the drug varies by age so participants between the ages of 18-39 years were recruited (the younger adult group), and participants between the ages of 60-80 years were recruited (the older adult group). Participants were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or to the drug group (Drug A). All participants were first screened to ensure they met the criteria for depression. After 2 months of taking either the placebo or Drug A, participants returned to the lab and completed a measure of depressive symptomology called the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).

Part 1

For the first part of this assignment, create a table showing the mean, median, and mode for each participant group and each drug condition on the score for the BDI-II. The data for each participant are contained in the “Participant Data” worksheet in the Data1 File. You may use Excel or you can calculate these values by hand. Your table should look like the following:

Younger Adults

Placebo Younger Adults

Drug A Older Adults

Placebo Older Adults

Drug A

You must have the “Data Analysis” add-in installed. Directions for this installation are provided in the “Data Analysis in Excel 2016” file located under your weekly resources. These instructions will also work for Excel 2010. This document also describes how to calculate basic descriptive statistics using Excel.

Part 2

For this part of the assignment, create a bar chart in Excel. You will need the “Summary Data for Graph” worksheet from the Data 1 file. Remember, the bar chart shows the means for each condition rather than individual participant data, and the data in this worksheet have been organized accordingly.

For the steps regarding how to create the bar graph, review the steps in “Creating a Bar Graph in Excel 2016” or “Creating a Bar Graph in Excel 2010,” located under your weekly resources. These instructions should also work with other versions of Excel.

You should copy and paste the graph you create into a Word document, along with your table showing the mean, median, and mode.

Length:1-2 pages

Your graph and table should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

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