Sickle Cell Anemia Essay

Sickle Cell Anemia Essay

Sickle Cell Anemia Essay

Sickle Cell Anemia
Over the years, the healthcare sector has had to deal with various health conditions to ensure that people and populations are healthy. Healthcare professionals such as nurses and doctors have been at the center of care provision and treatment to ensure that individuals with various conditions have better patient outcomes. The implication is that the pathology, mechanism of pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment should all be studied (McCance & Huether, 2018). Therefore, the purpose of this assignment is to explore sickle cell anemia by discussing various aspects such as the description of the pathology, the normal anatomy of the major system affected, the mechanism of pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment

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Description of the Pathology
Sickle cell anemia is a type of sickle cell disease, which is an inherited blood disorder. The condition changes the shape of the red blood cells by making them into sticky and stiff sickle cells, which restrict the flow of blood, interfering with the transfer of oxygen through the body by the red blood cells (Williams & Thein, 2018). The condition leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells, which then leads to anemia. Sickle cell anemia is inherited from the parents, where a child inherits the gene which mutates the red blood cells from the parents. While individuals who inherit mutated genes from the father and mother would have sickle cell anemia, those who inherit the gene from only one parent end up having sickle cell trait. Sickle cell anemia can lead to other effects such as Vaso-inclusive crisis, acute chest syndrome, anemia, stroke, Splenetic sequestration, bacterial infections, chronic kidney disease, pulmonary hypertension, and leg ulcers.
The Normal Anatomy of Major Body System Affected
Sickle cell anemia can affect various body parts such as the kidneys, heart, and the liver. However, it majorly affects the red blood cells hence affecting the circulatory or cardiovascular system. The normal anatomy of the heart is that it has four main chambers, and it is powered by electrical impulses. The four main chambers include the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle (Buckberg et al.,2018). All four chambers coordinate the circulation of the blood. The red blood cells, which are majorly affected by sickle cell anemia, usually have the shape of a flat doughnut or disk, round in shape but with some indentation at the center. They do not have a nucleus which allows them to change shape and move throughout the body with ease.
The Normal Physiology of the Body System Affected
It is also important to explore the normal physiology of the body system affected by sickle cell anemia. The circulatory system is responsible for pumping blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated. The oxygenated blood then goes back to the heart, which then pumps it to other parts of the body through the arteries (Buckberg et al.,2018). The veins then bring back the blood to the heart for a fresh cycle of the circulation process.
Mechanism of Pathophysiology
As discussed earlier, sickle cell anemia is a genetic condition. The condition is usually characterized by defects in both the shape and function of the hemoglobin in the blood, which then enhances the chances of blood vessel blockages and disruptions in blood flow. The sickle hemoglobin is different in physical shape from the normal hemoglobin since it adopts a curved sickle as opposed to the normal flat-disk-shaped cells (Sundd et al.,2019). The genetic mutation known to cause sickle hemoglobin entails adenine substituting thymine on the sixth codon of the genetic sequence. Therefore, a coding of valine, as opposed to glutamate, occurs on the hemoglobin beta chain. It is worth noting that such genetic, physical property changes of the hemoglobin alter the stability and solubility and lead to the adoption of the sickle shapes. The condition is known to follow an autosomal recessive pattern. The implication is that both females and males are equally affected, and each parent must have a genetic mutation, even if asymptomatic, for an individual to be born affected.
Prevention
Most diseases have ways of prevention, implying that individuals can use various strategies to ensure that they stay clear of such diseases. Unfortunately, sick cell anemia is a genetic condition; hence no strategy for preventing it exists (Sundd et al.,2019). However, current studies are focusing on how the condition can be stopped before it passes to the unborn child.
Treatment
The treatment and management of sickle cell anemia depend on several factors, such as the presenting symptoms and the time the condition has been detected. One of the most current curing modalities is blood and bone marrow transplant. This approach is usually recommended and used for individuals who present with severe conditions such as acute pain crises, recurring VOC, acute chest syndrome, and stroke (Salinas Cisneros & Thein, 2020). As part of the treatment modalities, sickle cell anemia is treated through blood transfusions. Antibiotics are also administered to help treat the pain which comes with the condition.
Sickle cell anemia can also be treated with certain medications which are meant to reduce the symptoms and complications which come with the disease. One of the medications is hydroxyurea which has been used as an anticancer drug. This drug has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to be used for treating patients with sickle cell anemia; the patient must be at least two years old. The medication is non to reduce pain crisis by half, reduce acute chest syndrome instances, lower the need for blood transfusions, and also improve symptoms connected to anemia (Salinas Cisneros & Thein, 2020). The other medication is Voxelotor which is administered to help in preventing the red blood cell having abnormal hemoglobin from turning into sickled cells. The medication has also been shown to prevent faster destruction of the red blood cells than the bone marrow can replace. The patients using this medication must be at least four years old.
L-glutamine therapy is another approach that has been used in the treatment of sickle cell anemia. The therapy is used to help in reducing sickle cell anemia-associated complications. Since sickled cells are known to develop over some period, this therapy approach helps in protecting the sickled cells from misshapen. L-glutamine therapy is recommended for treating patients five years and above as well as adults (Salinas Cisneros & Thein, 2020). Crizanlizumab-tmca medication is also used for sickle cell anemia. The medication is administered to help reduce the acute pain crisis frequency. Therefore, upon administration, the patient stands a better chance of coping with sudden episodes of acute pain.
Conclusion
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder or a disease that has no definite way of prevention. Up to seventy percent of individuals with sickle cell disease have sickle cell anemia. The condition changes the shape of the red blood cells by making them into sticky and stiff sickle cells, which restrict the flow of blood, interfering with the transfer of oxygen through the body by the red blood cells. A child is born with sickle cell anemia only if they inherit a mutated gene from each of the biological parents; otherwise, if a mutated gene is only from one biological parent, then the child possesses a sickle cell trait. The most common way of curing the condition is a bone marrow transplant. The condition is also being treated using various approaches, for example, medications such as hydroxyurea, an anticancer drug that has widely been used in the treatment of sickle cell anemia.

References
Buckberg, G. D., Nanda, N. C., Nguyen, C., & Kocica, M. J. (2018). What is the heart? Anatomy, function, pathophysiology, and misconceptions. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease, 5(2), 33 https://www.mdpi.com/2308-3425/5/2/33#
McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology-E-book: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Salinas Cisneros, G., & Thein, S. L. (2020). Recent advances in the treatment of sickle cell disease. Frontiers in Physiology, 11, 435. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00435
Sundd, P., Gladwin, M. T., & Novelli, E. M. (2019). Pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, 14, 263-292. Doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathmechdis-012418-012838
Williams, T. N., & Thein, S. L. (2018). Sickle cell anemia and its phenotypes. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 19, 113-147. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-083117-021320

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  Criteria
1 Description of the pathology
2 Normal anatomy of major body system affected
3 Normal physiology of body system affected
4 Mechanism of pathophysiology
5 Prevention
6 Treatment

 

  • Students will be assigned individual topics related to physiology and pathological conditions of physiological systems.
  • The student will be required to complete criteria 1-7 in a written paper.
  • The paper will be a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 6 pages long not including a title and reference pages.
  • A minimum of three APA-style references must be included in the paper. There should be an APA-format references page at the end of the presentation. Additionally, in-text citations should be included when appropriate. Reputable resources include peer-reviewed journal articles, textbooks, interviews with clinicians who deal with these pathologies on a daily basis, personal experiences, class lectures, and other scientific sources.
  • The student should use a font size of 12, Times New Roman, and double-spaced throughout. The paper should be written with the text aligned to the left margin with 1” margins.
  • Students should review the information about plagiarism in the Student Catalog. Any copying of information from another source without giving proper credit through a citation will be met with severe consequences. In line with this, however, the entire presentation should not be directly copied from other sources. The student is expected to compose ideas in their own words, and only use text from other sources as a minor supplement.

The assignment should be submitted through the Dropbox in Canvas on or before the assigned due date. Refer to the late policy for late submissions.

Note: Any paper submitted that comes back with a TurnItIn Plagiarism Report greater than 25% unoriginal will result in an automatic zero. You are expected to paraphrase and put things in your own words (while citing properly, of course).

Criteria      
Description of Pathology (10 points)

 

CSLO 7

Student provides a comprehensive introductory section of the condition in 1-2 paragraphs.

(Up to 10 points)

Student provides a subpar introductory section of the condition in 1-2 paragraphs.

(Up to 7 points)

Student provides an inadequate introductory section.

(Up to 3 points)

Normal Anatomy of body system (15 points)

 

CSLO 5

Student has demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of fundamental concepts of normal anatomy of the body system throughout 100% of the project. Student can accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary consistently throughout the assignment.

(Up to 15 points)

Student has demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of fundamental concepts of the normal anatomy of the body system through at least 50% of the project. Student can accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary mostly throughout the assignment.

(Up to 10 points)

Student has demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of fundamental concepts of the normal anatomy of the body system through at least 25% of the project. Student did not accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary throughout the assignment.

(Up to 5 points)

Normal Physiology of body system (15 points)

 

CSLO 5

Student has demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of fundamental concepts of normal physiology of the body system throughout the project. Student can accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary consistently throughout the assignment.

(Up to 15 points)

Student has demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of fundamental concepts of the normal physiology of the body system through at least 50% of the project. Student can accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary mostly throughout the assignment.

(Up to 10 points)

Student has demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of fundamental concepts of the normal physiology of the body system through at least 25% of the project. Student did not accurately interpret and communicate information using scientific vocabulary throughout the assignment.

(Up to 5 points)

Mechanism of Pathophysiology (20 points)

 

CSLO 7

The student’s writing demonstrates a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomical and physiological changes contributing to the disease. The overall paper shows a depth understudying of the disease consistent with collegiate level research on the topic.

(Up to 20 points)

The student’s writing demonstrates some understanding of the underlying anatomical and physiological changes contributing to the disease. The overall paper shows some in depth understudying of the topic, but some information is missing.

(Up to 12 points)

The student’s writing demonstrates little understanding of the underlying anatomical and physiological changes contributing to the disease. The overall paper shows a shallow understudying of the topic.

(Up to 7 points)

Prevention (10 points) Student provides a comprehensive section outlining possible prevention protocols or clearly indicates if none is available for the condition based on current scientific literature.

(Up to 10 points)

Student provides a subpar section outlining possible prevention protocols or clearly indicates if none is available for the condition based on current scientific literature.

(Up to 6 points)

Student provides an inadequate section outlining possible prevention protocols or clearly indicates if none is available for the condition based on current scientific literature.

(Up to 3 points)

Treatment (10 points) Student provides a comprehensive section outlining possible treatment protocols for the condition based on current scientific literature.

(Up to 10 points)

Student provides a subpar section outlining possible treatment protocols for the condition based on current scientific literature.

(Up to 6 points)

Student provides an inadequate section outlining possible treatment protocols for the condition based on current scientific literature.

(Up to 3 points)

Paper Formatting & Overall Presentation

(10 points)

Overall presentation is 100% complete, follows APA formatting guidelines, demonstrates scholarly achievement and utilizes appropriate grammar and sentence structure throughout.

(Up to 10 points)

Overall presentation is mostly complete, APA formatting guidelines are mostly followed, demonstrates scholarly achievement, and utilizes appropriate grammar and sentence structure throughout the majority of the paper.

(Up to 7 points)

Overall presentation is two or more of the following: Incomplete, APA formatting not followed, does not demonstrates scholarly achievement, significant issues with appropriate grammar and sentence structure.

(Up to 4 points)

References & In-text Citations (10 points) At least sources have been referenced, references are from reputable sources, and proper APA format was used, both for in text citation and for the reference section, with no inaccuracies in APA formatting.

(Up to 10 points)

At least sources have been referenced, most references are from reputable sources, and proper APA format was used, both for in text citation and for the reference section, with minor inaccuracies in APA formatting.

(Up to 7 points)

Insufficient sources were referenced, or sources were from biased sources, with many errors in APA style and formatting.

(Up to 4 points)


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