Nurs 6640 Week 9: Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents

Nurs 6640 Week 9: Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents

Nurs 6640 Week 9: Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents

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Approximately 1 in 5 children and adolescents have a mental health disorder, which may lead to issues at home, school, and other areas of their lives (Prout & Fedewa, 2015). When working with this population, it is important to recognize that children and adolescents are not “mini adults” and should not be treated as such. Psychotherapy with these clients is often more complex than psychotherapy with the general adult population, particularly in terms of communication. As a result, strong therapeutic relationships are essential to success.

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This week, as you explore psychotherapy with children and adolescents, you assess clients presenting with disruptive behaviors. You also examine therapies for treating these clients and consider potential outcomes. Finally, you develop diagnoses for clients receiving psychotherapy and consider legal and ethical implications of counseling these clients.

Photo Credit: [dolgachov]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Nurs 6640 Week 9: Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents Learning Resources

Required Readings

Wheeler, K. (Ed.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

  • Chapter      17, “Psychotherapy With Children” (pp. 597–624)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note: You will access this text from the Walden Library databases.

Bass, C., van Nevel, J., & Swart, J. (2014). A comparison between dialectical behavior therapy, mode deactivation therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 9(2), 4–8. doi:10.1037/h0100991

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Koocher, G. P. (2003). Ethical issues in psychotherapy with adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(11), 1247–1256. PMID:14566959

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

McLeod, B. D., Jensen-Doss, A., Tully, C. B., Southam-Gerow, M. A., Weisz, J. R., & Kendall, P. C. (2016). The role of setting versus treatment type in alliance within youth therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(5), 453–464. doi:10.1037/ccp0000081

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Zilberstein, K. (2014). The use and limitations of attachment theory in child psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 51(1), 93–103. doi:10.1037/a0030930

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Nurs 6640 Week 9: Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents

Nurs 6640 Week 9: Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents Required Media

Walker, R. (n.d.). Making child therapy work [Video file]. Mill Valley, CA: Psychotherapy.net.

Note: You will access this media from the Walden Library databases. The approximate length of this media piece is 95 minutes.

Optional Resources

Bruce, T., & Jongsma, A. (2010a). Evidence-based treatment planning for disruptive child and adolescent behavior [Video file]. Mill Valley, CA: Psychotherapy.net.

Note: You will access this media from the Walden Library databases. The approximate length of this media piece is 63 minutes.

Discussion: Counseling Adolescents

The adolescent population is often referred to as “young adults,” but in some ways, this is a misrepresentation. Adolescents are not children, but they are not yet adults either. This transition from childhood to adulthood often poses many unique challenges to working with adolescent clients, particularly in terms of disruptive behavior. In your role, you must overcome these behaviors to effectively counsel clients. For this Discussion, as you examine the Disruptive Behaviors media in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat adolescent clients presenting with disruptive behavior.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Assess      clients presenting with disruptive behavior
  • Analyze      therapeutic approaches for treating clients presenting with disruptive      behavior
  • Evaluate      outcomes for clients presenting with disruptive behavior

To prepare:

  • Review      this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.
  • View      the media, Disruptive Behaviors. Select one of the four case      studies and assess the client.
  • For      guidance on assessing the client, refer to pages 137-142 of the Wheeler      text in this week’s Learning Resources.

Note: To complete this Discussion, you must assess the client, but you are not required to submit a formal Comprehensive Client Assessment.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit!

By Day 3

Post an explanation of your observations of the hyperactive adolescent in the case study you selected, including behaviors that align to the criteria in DSM-5. Then, explain therapeutic approaches you might use with this client, including psychotropic medications if appropriate. Finally, explain expected outcomes for the client based on these therapeutic approaches. Support your approach with evidence-based literature.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

Nurs 6640 Week 9: Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents

Discussion: Working With Children and Adolescents Versus Adults

Assessment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

The assessment process of children and adolescents in psychiatry is vastly different than that of adults. Why is this? Oftentimes, children have the same emotional, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. In children and adolescents, however, the justification for behaviors isn’t always as easy to determine. Per the NIMH (2019), children are more difficult to diagnose because of their lack of understanding of their symptoms, withdrawn demeanor, and influence of external factors on their behaviors. Because of this, specific assessment tools are employed that differentiate child/adolescent assessments from that of adults.

Why a Development Assessment of Children and Adolescents is Important

Bellman, Byrne, and Sege (2013) suggest that behavioral deficits in adulthood are often correlated to developmental delays in childhood. Likewise, Shogren, et al. (2015) discussed a direct correlation to emotional support needs in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities and behavioral deficits in adulthood. Developmental delays aren’t always cognitive in nature. Developmental delays in children and adolescents can be cognitive, such as those caused by chromosomal disorders, or seizure disorders. Developmental delays can be social, emotional, or behavioral–such as autism disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. With certain developmental delays, alterations in brain development can affect the way these individuals process and react to information—causing difficulties in learning, communication, and interpersonal interactions (NYU Langone Health, 2019). Understanding which delays are present, if any, can assist in determining viable treatment options and potential behavioral concerns that may manifest.

Two Assessment Instruments and Justification for Use in Children/Adolescents but Not Adults

Two screening tools unique to the treatment of adolescents and children are as follows: The C-GAS and the HEADSSS questionnaire. The C-GAS, or Children’s Global Assessment Scale, is used for children and adolescents, ages 4-16, to determine any functional impairments that may exist (NSW Department of Health, 2015). This scale is not utilized in adults, because it specifically measures the child’s level of functioning in areas such as school, with peers, emotional functioning, and functioning within society (NSW Department of Health, 2015). The HEADSSS questionnaire, however, was developed to determine adolescent risk factors in the following areas: home, Education/employment, activities, drugs, sexuality, suicide/self-image, and safety (Heard Alliance, 2011). This assessment tool is used for adolescents only to determine specific risk factors in the child’s life. Afterall, certain risk factors can lead to at-risk behaviors. This assessment tool identifies those factors in hopes of establishing protective mechanisms.

Two Treatment Options for Children/Adolescents that are Not Used in Adults

There are several treatment modalities favored in the child/adolescent populations that are often not employed in adult mental health treatment. These include the use of parental participation and favoritism toward psychotherapy opposed to medication usage. Many psychotropic medications and other medications used in the mental health treatment of children and adolescents are based on evidence-based treatment regimens, opposed to actual pediatric dosing. In addition, side effects of medications warrant caution in younger age groups. Because of this, psychotherapy is the most highly recommended treatment option for children. Psychotherapy is equally utilized in adult psychiatric treatment. However, adult treatment is often augmented with psychopharmacological intervention. In addition, treatment for children entails frequent evaluation. For example, the NIMH (2019) proposed that the incorporation of “teaching skills” and “practicing skills” within the home are unique to child/adolescent psychiatric care. This requires frequent evalution to determine if these skills are resolving the child’s mental health concerns, whether it be improvements adacemically, improved social skills, or a decrease in disruptive behaviors.

Parental Role in Assessment and Treatment of Children/Adolescents

Parents play a major role in their child’s psychiatric care. Per Haine-Schlagel and Walsh (2015), the mental health of children and adolescents is largely influenced by their interpersonal interactions, family, and social life. A child’s family interactions and environment represents the largest contributor to childhood behavioral problems (Haine-Schlagel & Walsh, 2015). Because of this, Haine-Schlagel and Walsh (2015) discuss the importance of incorporating family, if possible, into the child’s psychiatric treatment. This can be accomplished through family therapy, or having educational sessions with the parents to discuss communication strategies, discipline strategies, and other helpful tactics. Per Haine-Schlagel and Walsh (2015), parental participation is often difficult related to feelings of “blame” or difficulty with understanding the therapeutic point of view (pg. 135). However, is is suggested that parental involvement is an evidence-based treatment modality– promoting child and adolescent treatment outcomes for a variety of disparities, including depression, defiant disorders, eating disorders, disruptive disorders, and childhood anxiety disorders.

References

Bellman, M., Byrne, O., & Sege, R. (2013). Developmental Assessment of Children. British Journal of Medicine, 346(21), 31-35. Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Haine-Schlagel, R., & Walsh, N. E. (2015). A Review of Parent Participation Engagement in Child and Family Mental Health Treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18(2), 133-150. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433419/.

Heard Alliance. (2011). HEADSSS Assessment: Risk and Protective Factors. Retrieved from http://www.heardalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/HEADSS.pdf

NIMH. (2019). Children and Mental Health: Is This Just a Stage? Retrieved from National Institute of Mental Health: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/children-and-mental-health/index.shtml

NSW Department of Health. (2015). Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Retrieved from http://www.thereachinstitute.org/images/CGAS.pdf

NYU Langone Health. (2019). Types of Developmental Delays in Children. Retrieved from Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU Lagone: https://nyulangone.org/conditions/developmental-delays-in-children/types

Shogren, K. A., Seo, H., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Thompson, J. R., Hughes, C., & Little, T. D. (2015). Support Needs of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Age-Related Implications for Assessment. Psychology in the Schools, 52(9), 874-891. Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

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