NURS 6521 PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS ESSAY

NURS 6521 PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS ESSAY

NURS 6521 PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS ESSAY

Pharmacology for Cardiovascular Disorders

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The promotion of safety and quality in the treatment of patients with different conditions is important in nursing practice. Nurses and other healthcare providers utilize their knowledge in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to select treatments that will optimize outcomes while minimizing the potential of patient harm. Factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, and genetics among others influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the medications prescribed to patients. Therefore, this essay examines the influence of age on LM’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes. The essay also discusses the impact of the changes in the patient’s recommended drug therapy and how the treatment can be improved.

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Effect of Age on Patient’s Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamics Processes

 The selected factor that affects the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of LM processes is age. Age significantly affects pharmacokinetics of drugs. Aging is associated with decreased small-bowel surface area, reduced gastric emptying, and elevated gastric PH. Changes such as an increase in the gastric PH affects the absorption of drugs such as calcium and enteric coated medications (Koren et al., 2019).

 Aging also results in the decrease in the total body water and increase in the total body fat. The increase in body fat volume increases the total volume of distribution of lipophilic drugs and their elimination half-lives. Aging also lowers hepatic metabolism of most drugs. The decrease in cytochrome P-450 lowers the metabolism of drugs in the liver. This also affects first-pass metabolism of drugs before they enter the circulatory system. Aging is also associated with a decline in renal elimination of medications. The elderly patients have reduced glomerular filtration rate, which affects the elimination of drug metabolites from the body (Drenth-van Maanen et al., 2020; Koren et al., 2019; Peeters et al., 2019). As a result, there is an increased risk of drug toxicity due to the accumulation of the metabolites in the body. These pharmacokinetic changes affect the treatment options and health status of LM.

 Aging also affects pharmacodynamics of drugs. Pharmacodynamics refers to the study of the drug effect on the body. Aging is associated with reduced pharmacodynamics processes. One of the mechanisms contributing to the reduced pharmacodynamics is the limited functioning of drug receptor sites. There is also the reduction in the available drug receptors for drug binding. This reduces the effect of the drug on the body while increasing its blood bioavailability (Kratz & Diefenbacher, 2019). An example is seen in patients diagnosed with diabetes. They have low insulin receptors, which result in the elevated blood glucose levels.

The effect of aging on pharmacodynamics can also be seen from the exaggerated response to some drugs among this population. For example, older adults tend to show exaggerated responses to drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. The observation is because of the increased sensitivity to drugs by this population. In addition, aging reduces Gs protein interactions in the elderly patients. The decrease lowers cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular tissue to drugs such as those used in the treatment of hypertension(Stader et al., 2020). Therefore, nurses should consider these changes when prescribing drugs to elderly patients and other vulnerable populations.

Impact of the Changes in Processes on Patient’s Recommended Drug Therapy

 The changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes affect the patient’s recommended drug therapy. A decline in the drug metabolism in the liver affects the selection of drugs for the patient. Nurses and other healthcare providers should prescribe medications that do not undergo first-pass metabolism to preserve optimum hepatic function. A decline in renal function also affects the client’s recommended drug therapy(Peeters et al., 2019). Nurse practitioners prescribe medications that have other routes of excretion such as feces to promote renal functioning.

There is also the consideration of drug dosages with the changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Accordingly, nurse practitioners lower the dosage and frequency of hepatotoxic and renal toxic medications in patients with advanced ages to minimize the risk of harm and drug toxicity (Thürmann, 2020). The reduction in drug absorption due to lowered gastric physiological processes also increases the need for prescribing drugs that are administered through other routes such as intravenously and intramuscularly.

Improving Patient’s Drug Therapy

 I will improve the patient’s drug therapy by avoiding polypharmacy. The patient currently uses several drugs that predispose her to harm and medication errors. An effective approach to her treatment would be reducing the number of drugs taken at a time to promote her health, safety, and quality. The other way in which I will improve her drug therapy is by titrating the drug dosage upwards. Elderly patients should be initiated on low dosage and increased upwards based on tolerance and efficacy (Koren et al., 2019). I will modify the patient’s current treatment. I will lower the dosage of celecoxib to minimize the risk of hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity. I will also stop glyburide and retain metformin. Metformin has the benefit of reducing the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with multiple comorbidities that include cardiovascular conditions (Guo et al., 2019).

Conclusion

 Aging affects pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics processes. Advancing age lowers pharmacokinetic processes such as drug absorption, metabolism, and elimination. It also affects pharmacodynamics processes such as drug binding to their receptor sites. These changes affect the recommended treatment plan for the patient in the case study. Polypharmacy should be avoided in treating LM for safety and quality outcomes.

References

Drenth-van Maanen, A. C., Wilting, I., & Jansen, P. A. F. (2020). Prescribing medicines to older people—How to consider the impact of ageing on human organ and body functions. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 86(10), 1921–1930. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14094

Guo, L., Ma, J., Tang, J., Hu, D., Zhang, W., & Zhao, X. (2019). Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Metformin, Glyburide, and Insulin in Treating Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2019, 9804708. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9804708

Koren, G., Nordon, G., Radinsky, K., & Shalev, V. (2019). Clinical pharmacology of old age. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 12(8), 749–755. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2019.1632188

Kratz, T., & Diefenbacher, A. (2019). Psychopharmacological Treatment in Older People. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 116(29–30), 508–518. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2019.0508

Peeters, L. E. J., Kester, M. P., Feyz, L., Van Den Bemt, P. M. L. A., Koch, B. C. P., Van Gelder, T., & Versmissen, J. (2019). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations in the treatment of the elderly patient with hypertension. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 15(4), 287–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2019.1588249

Stader, F., Kinvig, H., Penny, M. A., Battegay, M., Siccardi, M., & Marzolini, C. (2020). Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling to Identify Pharmacokinetic Parameters Driving Drug Exposure Changes in the Elderly. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 59(3), 383–401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-019-00822-9

Thürmann, P. A. (2020). Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in older adults. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, 33(1), 109. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACO.0000000000000814

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Case Study:

LM is an 89-year-old female resident of a long-term care facility who has been experiencing multiple falls, some resulting in injuries such as bruising and skin tears. Over the last 6 months, her ambulation status has declined from independent to wheelchair level. She complains of pain in her legs when walking more than short distances across the nursing unit.

PMH:

HTN

Alzheimer’s disease

Hypothyroidism

Osteoarthritis

Diabetes

MEDICATIONS:

Amlodipine 10 mg QD

Donepezil 10 mg QHS

Levothyroxine 0.88 mg QAM

Celecoxib 200 mg QD

Furosemide 40 mg QAM

Metformin 500mg, 1 BID

Glyburide 5mg, 1 BID

ALLERGIES: NKA

SOCIAL HISTORY:

Widowed with 2 adult children living in town, retired photographer and owner of an art supply store

VITALS: LABS:

Weight: 129 lbs TSH 2.45 Free T4 0.98

Height: 64 inches Na 135, K+ 3.8, Cl 99, CO2 25,

BP: Supine = 177/82 Glucose 101, SCr 0.9, BUN 42

HR: 78 bpm WBC 7.0, RBC 4.5, Hgb 11.9, Hct 34.1

Plt 255

Cr: 1.6 UA: Clear

eGFR: 45 ml/min

PE:

HEENT: Normocephalic, no evidence of trauma, PERRLA, EOMI, Dry mucous membranes

CV: RRR

Respiratory: Clear to auscultation bilaterally

Abdomen: Soft, non-tender, no masses or guarding

G/U: Skin intact, assisted with toileting and personal hygiene by staff

Extremities: Bilateral 2+ edema to lower extremities; skin dry, dark bruising and skin tear to right elbow and forearm

Neuro: Alert and oriented to person only. MMSE 18/30, stable over last 12 months.

PAIN ASSESSMENT:

Faces pain scale: No pain occurs at rest, upon walking, pain is moderate to severe

PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS

…heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

—Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

RESOURCES

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.

Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

LEARNING RESOURCES

Required Readings

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Chapter 33, “Review of Hemodynamics” (pp. 285–289)

Chapter 37, “Diuretics” (pp. 290–296)

Chapter 38, “Drugs Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System” (pp. 297–307)

Chapter 39, “Calcium Channel Blockers” (pp. 308–312)

Chapter 40, “Vasodilators” (pp. 313–317)

Chapter 41, “Drugs for Hypertension” (pp. 316–324)

Chapter 42, “Drugs for Heart Failure” (pp. 325–336)

Chapter 43, “Antidysrhythmic Drugs” (pp. 337–348)

Chapter 44, “Prophylaxis of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Drugs That Help Normalize Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels” (pp. 349–363)

Chapter 45, “Drugs for Angina Pectoris” (pp. 364–371)

Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 372–388)

Required Media

Cardiovascular Disorders

Meet Dr. Norbert Myslinski as he discusses ACE inhibitors, angiotensin inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics as different categories of hypertension drugs. What potential drugs might be best recommended for patients suffering from hypertension? (8m)

Walden University. (n.d.). Instructor feedbackLinks to an external site.. https://cdn-media.waldenu.edu/2dett4d/Walden/WWOW/1001/pulse_check/instructor_feedback/index.html#/

To Prepare

Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.

Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.

Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.

Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

BY DAY 7 OF WEEK 2

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.

Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.

Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632Links to an external site.). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

SUBMISSION INFORMATION

Before submitting your final assignment, you can check your draft for authenticity. To check your draft, access the Turnitin Drafts from the Start Here area.

To submit your completed assignment, save your Assignment as WK2Assgn_LastName_Firstinitial

Then, click on Start Assignment near the top of the page.

Next, click on Upload File and select Submit Assignment for review.

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Rubric

NURS_6521_Week2_Assignment_Rubric

NURS_6521_Week2_Assignment_Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeExplain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
25 to >22.5 ptsExcellent

The response accurately and completely explains in detail how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient.

22.5 to >19.75 ptsGood

The response provides a basic explanation of how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient.

19.75 to >17.25 ptsFair

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient.

17.25 to >0 ptsPoor

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient, or is missing.

25 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDescribe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
30 to >26.7 ptsExcellent

The response accurately and completely describes in detail how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. … Accurate, complete, and aligned examples are provided to support the response.

26.7 to >23.7 ptsGood

The response accurately describes how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. … Accurate examples may be provided to support the response.

23.7 to >20.7 ptsFair

The response inaccurately or vaguely describes how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. … Inaccurate or vague examples are provided to support the response.

20.7 to >0 ptsPoor

The response inaccurately and vaguely describes how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy, or is missing. … Inaccurate and vague examples may be provided to support the response, or is missing.

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeExplain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan, and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.
30 to >26.7 ptsExcellent

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan. … The response includes an accurate and detailed explanation to support the recommended improvements.

26.7 to >23.7 ptsGood

The response accurately explains how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan. … The response may include an accurate explanation to support the recommended improvements.

23.7 to >20.7 ptsFair

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan. … The response may include an inaccurate, vague, or misaligned explanation to support the recommended improvements.

20.7 to >0 ptsPoor

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan, or is missing. … The response may include an inaccurate and vague explanation to support the recommended improvements, or is missing.

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.
5 to >4.45 ptsExcellent

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

4.45 to >3.95 ptsGood

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

3.95 to >3.45 ptsFair

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

3.45 to >0 ptsPoor

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity less than 60% of the time.

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 to >4.45 ptsExcellent

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors

4.45 to >3.95 ptsGood

Contains a few (1–2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors

3.95 to >3.45 ptsFair

Contains several (3–4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors

3.45 to >0 ptsPoor

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
5 to >4.45 ptsExcellent

Uses correct APA format with no errors

4.45 to >3.95 ptsGood

Contains a few (1–2) APA format errors

3.95 to >3.45 ptsFair

Contains several (3–4) APA format errors

3.45 to >0 ptsPoor

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors

5 pts
Total Points: 100

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