NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Essay

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Essay

NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Essay

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
The case scenario concerns LM, an 89-year-old woman in a long-term care facility. She has a history of multiple falls that often result in bruises and skin tears. LM’s medical history is positive for HTN, Hypothyroidism, Alzheimer’s, Osteoarthritis, and Diabetes. She is currently on Amlodipine, Donepezil, Levothyroxine, Celecoxib, Furosemide, Metformin, and Glyburide. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the patient’s age affects the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) processes and propose a medication plan.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
NURS 6521 Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Essay
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

ORDER A CUSTOM PAPER NOW

Influence of Age on PK and PD Processes
Aging is characterized by changes in the human organs, which contribute to altered medication PK and PD processes. Changes in aging that affect drug absorption include decreased gastric acid production, gastric motility, the surface area of the small bowel, and splanchnic blood flow (Drenth‐van Maanen et al., 2020). Besides, aging is characterized by decreased first-pass metabolism, which leads to increased absorption of high-clearance drugs and reduced absorption of drugs from prodrugs. The increased proportion of body fat in aging leads to increased distribution of lipid-soluble drugs (Dücker & Brockmöller, 2019). Aging is associated with a decline in lean body mass and total body water, leading to decreased water-soluble drug distribution.
Older adults have decreased hepatic blood flow and hepatic mass and reduced cytochrome P450 enzyme activity, which reduces hepatic clearance. Furthermore, aging is characterized by decreased renal function, and older adults are prone to renal disease, which leads to decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (Chou & Chen, 2021). This affects the elimination of drugs, and the accumulation of drugs in plasma increases the risk of toxicity.
Aging is associated with altered PD processes with drugs acting on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. For instance, older adults have a reduced sensitivity of their cardiac β-1 and β-2 adrenergic receptors. Thus, they exhibit a reduced response to β-agonists, like dobutamine (β-1 agonist) and salbutamol (β-2 agonist) (Drenth‐van Maanen et al., 2020). Aging is also related to changes in homeostatic mechanisms, like impaired reflex tachycardia and regulation of temperature and electrolytes, which increases the risk for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older adults.
How Changes in the Processes Might Impact the Patient’s Recommended Drug Therapy
The peak diuretic response of furosemide may decrease due to impaired drug elimination caused by decreased renal function in aging. LM has a decreased renal function owing to the reduced GFR of 45 ml/min and elevated BUN and creatinine levels. Thus, the furosemide dose may be increased based on the PD effect. Amlodipine, Metformin, and Glyburide are excreted via the kidneys. Their dose may need to be lowered to avoid an accumulation of drugs in plasma since their elimination will be impaired by the decreased renal function (Barry & Hughes, 2021). Furthermore, Donepezil may require a dose reduction due to the increased sensitivity in the CNS that occurs with aging.
Improving the Drug Therapy
The patient’s drug therapy will need modification to accommodate the changes in PK and PD processes caused by aging in the patient. Donepezil will be reduced to 5mg QHS due to increased sensitivity to the drug among older adults. The patient’s lab tests suggest renal insufficiency. Therefore, Amlodipine will be decreased to 5 mg QD and Glyburide to 2.5 mg to prevent the accumulation of the drugs in the plasma, which can cause toxicity (Maher et al., 2021). Furosemide will be increased to 80 mg because of the decreased peak diuretic response caused by renal insufficiency. Levothyroxine increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in older adults (Gluvic et al., 2021). Thus the dose will be lowered to 50 mcg/day. Metformin will be stopped because it causes lactic acidosis in patients with renal insufficiency.
Conclusion
Physiological changes that occur in aging affect PK processes like drug absorption, metabolism, distribution, and elimination. Changes in body fat and lean mass composition affect drug distribution in older adults. The PD processes of CNS and cardiovascular drugs are also affected by aging. Thus, drug modification is essential in older patients to accommodate these changes.

References
Barry, H. E., & Hughes, C. M. (2021). An Update on Medication Use in Older Adults: A Narrative Review. Current Epidemiology Reports, pp. 8, 108–115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40471-021-00274-5
Chou, Y. H., & Chen, Y. M. (2021). Aging and Renal Disease: Old Questions for New Challenges. Aging and disease, 12(2), 515–528. https://doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.0703
Drenth‐van Maanen, A. C., Wilting, I., & Jansen, P. A. (2020). Prescribing medicines to older people—How to consider the impact of aging on human organs and body functions. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 86(10), 1921-1930. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14094
Dücker, C. M., & Brockmöller, J. (2019). Genomic Variation and Pharmacokinetics in Old Age: A Quantitative Review of Age- vs. Genotype-Related Differences. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 105(3), 625–640. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1057
Gluvic, Z., Obradovic, M., Stewart, A. J., Essack, M., Pitt, S. J., Samardzic, V., Soskic, S., Gojobori, T., & Isenovic, E. R. (2021). Levothyroxine Treatment and the Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmias – Focus on the Patient Submitted to Thyroid Surgery. Frontiers in endocrinology, 12, 758043. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.758043
Maher, D., Ailabouni, N., Mangoni, A. A., Wiese, M. D., & Reeve, E. (2021). Alterations in drug disposition in older adults: a focus on geriatric syndromes. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology, 17(1), 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2021.1839413

ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

Class,

In Week 2, you will examine the impact of patient factors that may lead to changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy for cardiovascular disorders. You will also explore ways to improve drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders based on patient factors and overall health needs.

What do I have to do?

When do I have to do it?

Review your Learning Resources

Days 1-7, Week 2

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2

Assignment

By Day 7 of Week 2 (by Sunday, 11:59 pm MT)

Write a 2- to 3+ page paper that addresses the following:

Explain how the factor (i.e. genetics, gender, ethnicity, age or behavior) you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.

Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.

Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements. Would you discontinue any medications, change the dosage, and/or add medications to the patient’s regimen? DISCUSS EACH MEDICATION.

Case study assigned

LM is an 89-year-old female resident of a long-term care facility who has been experiencing multiple falls, some resulting in injuries such as bruising and skin tears. Over the last 6 months, her ambulation status has declined from independent to wheelchair level. She complains of pain in her legs when walking more than short distances across the nursing unit.

PMH:

HTN

Alzheimer’s disease

Hypothyroidism

Osteoarthritis

Diabetes

MEDICATIONS:

Amlodipine 10 mg QD

Donepezil 10 mg QHS

Levothyroxine 88 mcg QAM

Celecoxib 200 mg QD

Furosemide 40 mg QAM

Metformin 500mg, 1 BID

Glyburide 5mg, 1 BID

ALLERGIES: NKA

SOCIAL HISTORY:

Widowed with 2 adult children living in town, retired photographer and owner of an art supply store

VITALS: LABS:

Weight: 129 lbs TSH 2.45, Free T4 0.98

Height: 64 inches Na 135, K+ 3.4, Cl 99, CO2 25,

BP: Supine = 177/82 Glucose 101

HR: 78 bpm WBC 7.0, RBC 4.5, Hgb 11.9, Hct 34.1, Plt 255

BUN 42, Cr 1.6, UA Clear

eGFR: 45 ml/min

PE:

HEENT: Normocephalic, no evidence of trauma, PERRLA, EOMI

CV: RRR

Respiratory: Clear to auscultation bilaterally

Abdomen: Soft, non-tender, no masses or guarding

G/U: Skin intact, assisted with toileting and personal hygiene by staff

Extremities: Bilateral 2+ edema to lower extremities; skin dry, dark bruising and skin tear to right elbow and forearm

Neuro: Alert and oriented to person only. MMSE 18/30, stable over last 12 months

PAIN ASSESSMENT:

Faces pain scale: No pain occurs at rest, upon walking, pain is moderate to severe

I look forward to reading your papers. Your week 1 threaded discussion has been graded; I will grade the week 1 assignment by Wednesday night.

-Dr.Stanton

Midterm Exam

Final Exam

Complete during Week 7 by Day 7, SUNDAY 7/16

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

…heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

—Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

Resources

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.

Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Chapter 33, “Review of Hemodynamics” (pp. 285–289)

Chapter 37, “Diuretics” (pp. 290–296)

Chapter 38, “Drugs Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System” (pp. 297–307)

Chapter 39, “Calcium Channel Blockers” (pp. 308–312)

Chapter 40, “Vasodilators” (pp. 313–317)

Chapter 41, “Drugs for Hypertension” (pp. 316–324)

Chapter 42, “Drugs for Heart Failure” (pp. 325–336)

Chapter 43, “Antidysrhythmic Drugs” (pp. 337–348)

Chapter 44, “Prophylaxis of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Drugs That Help Normalize Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels” (pp. 349–363)

Chapter 45, “Drugs for Angina Pectoris” (pp. 364–371)

Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 372–388)

Required Media

Cardiovascular Disorders

Meet Dr. Norbert Myslinski as he discusses ACE inhibitors, angiotensin inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics as different categories of hypertension drugs. What potential drugs might be best recommended for patients suffering from hypertension? (8m)

Walden University. (n.d.). Instructor feedback

Links to an external site.. https://cdn-media.waldenu.edu/2dett4d/Walden/WWOW/1001/pulse_check/instructor_feedback/index.html#/

To Prepare

Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.

Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.

Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.

Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.

Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.

Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.

Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632

Links to an external site.). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

submission information

Before submitting your final assignment, you can check your draft for authenticity. To check your draft, access the Turnitin Drafts from the Start Here area.

To submit your completed assignment, save your Assignment as WK2Assgn_LastName_Firstinitial

Then, click on Start Assignment near the top of the page.

Next, click on Upload File and select Submit Assignment for review.

ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE

Rubric

NURS_6521_Week2_Assignment_Rubric

NURS_6521_Week2_Assignment_Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
25 to >22.5 ptsExcellent

The response accurately and completely explains in detail how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient.

22.5 to >19.75 ptsGood

The response provides a basic explanation of how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient.

19.75 to >17.25 ptsFair

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient.

17.25 to >0 ptsPoor

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how the factor selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient, or is missing.

25 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
30 to >26.7 ptsExcellent

The response accurately and completely describes in detail how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. … Accurate, complete, and aligned examples are provided to support the response.

26.7 to >23.7 ptsGood

The response accurately describes how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. … Accurate examples may be provided to support the response.

23.7 to >20.7 ptsFair

The response inaccurately or vaguely describes how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. … Inaccurate or vague examples are provided to support the response.

20.7 to >0 ptsPoor

The response inaccurately and vaguely describes how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy, or is missing. … Inaccurate and vague examples may be provided to support the response, or is missing.

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan, and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.
30 to >26.7 ptsExcellent

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan. … The response includes an accurate and detailed explanation to support the recommended improvements.

26.7 to >23.7 ptsGood

The response accurately explains how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan. … The response may include an accurate explanation to support the recommended improvements.

23.7 to >20.7 ptsFair

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan. … The response may include an inaccurate, vague, or misaligned explanation to support the recommended improvements.

20.7 to >0 ptsPoor

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how to improve the patient’s drug therapy plan, or is missing. … The response may include an inaccurate and vague explanation to support the recommended improvements, or is missing.

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.
5 to >4.45 ptsExcellent

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

4.45 to >3.95 ptsGood

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

3.95 to >3.45 ptsFair

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

3.45 to >0 ptsPoor

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity less than 60% of the time.

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 to >4.45 ptsExcellent

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors

4.45 to >3.95 ptsGood

Contains a few (1–2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors

3.95 to >3.45 ptsFair

Contains several (3–4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors

3.45 to >0 ptsPoor

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
5 to >4.45 ptsExcellent

Uses correct APA format with no errors

4.45 to >3.95 ptsGood

Contains a few (1–2) APA format errors

3.95 to >3.45 ptsFair

Contains several (3–4) APA format errors

3.45 to >0 ptsPoor

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors

5 pts
Total Points: 1

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Proscholarly
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Medicine
This was done very well. Thank you!
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Great work, Thank you, will come back with more work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Well researched paper. Excellent work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Good work. Will be placing another order tomorrow
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NURSE ADVOCATE HEALTHCARE PROGRAM
The absolute best ! Thanks for great communication, quality papers, and amazing time delivery!
Customer 452467, November 14th, 2022
Medicine
Very fond of the paper written. The topic chosen is defiantly trending at this time
Customer 452495, July 27th, 2023
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat