NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay

NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay

NURS 6521 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Essay

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
To ensure the optimal administration of medication, it is imperative to conduct a comprehensive assessment of patients’ pharmacodynamic factors and pharmacokinetic processes before prescribing any drugs (Peeters et al., 2019). Whilst undertaking my nursing duties within a hospital setting, I encountered a 72-year-old female of Caucasian ethnicity who presented with mild symptoms of cardiac insufficiency. The laboratory results for the patient revealed elevated levels of creatinine at 1.56 mg/dl, which is indicative of renal dysfunction. The patient’s medical history indicated previous use of Digoxin.

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The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes of the patient are influenced by her advanced age. According to the American Geriatrics Society (2019), research indicates that aging impairs the regular operation of numerous bodily organs. The patient in the aforementioned case study exhibited heightened levels of creatinine, indicative of renal impairment. With age, the patient’s kidneys and liver were less able to get rid of the drug. This led to a decreased amount distribution and higher blood concentration of the drug. The process of aging is associated with a preeminent likelihood of patients exhibiting heightened sensitivity to medications such as digoxin.
The primary focus of the patient’s care plan will entail the modification of the patient’s digoxin dosage to achieve an optimal level that adheres to the safety parameters for geriatric patients. According to Abdel Jalil et al. (2021), Digoxin serum concentration should be between the ideal therapeutic range of 0.5 and 2 ng/dl. To mitigate the risk of digoxin toxicity in elderly patients with impaired renal function, it was imperative to conduct regular monitoring of their creatinine levels. The recorded creatinine level of the patient was elevated at 1.56 mg/dl. Therefore, it was imperative to perform titration of the digoxin dosage to achieve an optimal daily dose of 125mcg, while closely monitoring the levels of serum. The healthcare provider recommended that the patient contemplate lifestyle adjustments, such as engaging in physical activity, to enhance bodily functioning and facilitate a favorable treatment outcome.

References
Abdel Jalil, M., Abdullah, N., Alsous, M., & Abu-Hammour, K. (2021). Population Pharmacokinetic Studies of Digoxin in Adult Patients: A Systematic Review. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, 46(3), 325–342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13318-021-00672-6
American Geriatrics Society. (2019). American geriatrics society 2019 updated AGS beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15767
Peeters, L. E. J., Kester, M. P., Feyz, L., Van Den Bemt, P. M. L. A., Koch, B. C. P., Van Gelder, T., & Versmissen, J. (2019). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations in the treatment of the elderly patient with hypertension. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 15(4), 287–297. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2019.1588249

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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body.

When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease.

For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug.

Resources

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.

Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

To prepare:

Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.

Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.

Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by suggesting additional patient factors that might have interfered with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patients they described. In addition, suggest how the personalized plan of care might change if the age of the patient were different and/or if the patient had a comorbid condition, such as renal failure, heart failure, or liver failure.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the Reply button to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Post Reply, you cannot delete or edit your own posts and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Post Reply!

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NURS_6521_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

NURS_6521_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Main Posting

50 to >44.5 pts

Excellent

Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources. …Supported by at least three current, credible sources….Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

44.5 to >39.5 pts

Good

Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. …At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth. …Supported by at least three credible sources….Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

39.5 to >34.5 pts

Fair

Responds to some of the discussion question(s). …One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed. …Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. …Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. …Post is cited with two credible sources….Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors. …Contains some APA formatting errors.

34.5 to >0 pts

Poor

Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately….Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria. …Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis. …Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module. …Contains only one or no credible sources….Not written clearly or concisely. …Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors. …Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

50 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Main Post: Timeliness

10 pts

Excellent

Posts main post by day 3

0 pts

poor

Does not post by day 3

10 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome First Response

18 to >16.02 pts

Excellent

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings. …Responds fully to questions posed by faculty. …Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. …Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives….Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. ….Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. …Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

16.02 to >14.22 pts

Good

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings. …Responds fully to questions posed by faculty. …Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. …Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives….Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. ….Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. …Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

14.22 to >12.42 pts

Fair

Response is on topic and may have some depth….Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. …Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. …Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

12.42 to >0 pts

Poor

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth….Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication. …Responses to faculty questions are missing. …No credible sources are cited.

18 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Second Response

17 to >15.13 pts

Excellent

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings….Responds fully to questions posed by faculty. …Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources. …Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives….Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. ….Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed. …Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

15.13 to >13.43 pts

Good

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings….Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues. …Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed. …Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources. …Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

13.43 to >11.73 pts

Fair

Response is on topic and may have some depth….Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication. …Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed. …. Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

11.73 to >0 pts

Poor

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth….Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication. …Responses to faculty questions are missing. …No credible sources are cited.

17 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Participation

5 pts

Excellent

Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.

0 pts
Poor

Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days

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