Nurs-6501 Case Study Week 4 Module 2 Paper

Nurs-6501 Case Study Week 4 Module 2 Paper

Nurs-6501 Case Study Week 4 Module 2 Paper

Case Study Analysis
The case study depicts a 76-year-old female with weight gain, dyspnea, peripheral edema, and abdominal swelling. The patient has a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) and does not comply with her diuretics due to increased urination. She also experiences orthopnea. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes contributing to the patient’s symptoms and the racial/ethnic variables that can affect physiological functioning.

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Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Processes
The patient’s symptoms can be attributed to cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes affecting the right and left sides of the heart. The patient experienced left ventricular dysfunction, characterized by decreased cardiac output and increased pulmonary venous pressure (Schwinger, 2021). When pulmonary capillary pressure surpasses the oncotic pressure of plasma proteins, fluid ejects from the capillaries into the interstitial space and alveoli. This reduces pulmonary compliance and increases the work of breathing. Besides, deoxygenated pulmonary arterial blood passes through poorly ventilated alveoli, reducing systemic arterial oxygenation and causing dyspnea. This explains the patient’s dyspnea and orthopnea.
The patient also has symptoms of right ventricular dysfunction. This occurs when there is an increase in systemic venous pressure that causes fluid leakage and consequent edema, mainly in dependent tissues like feet, ankles, and abdominal viscera. Fluid accumulation occurs in the peritoneal cavity resulting in ascites and weight gain due to fluid congestion (Schwinger, 2021). Right ventricular dysfunction explains the patient’s weight gain, peripheral edema, and abdominal swelling.
Racial/Ethnic Variables That May Impact Physiological Functioning
Black adults have a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and obesity. Thus, they are more than twice as likely to suffer cardiovascular disease mortality, relative to Whites (Javed et al., 2022). Likewise, American Indian individuals are 1.5 times as likely to suffer from coronary heart disease, than Whites. People of color, including Hispanics, Blacks, Asians, and American Indians, experience different degrees of social disadvantage that put them at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poor health outcomes, including mortality. Therefore, cardiovascular risk factors common in minority ethnic/racial populations increase individuals’ chances of developing CHF.
How These Processes Interact To Affect the Patient
Patients with CHF have a poor prognosis except if the cause can be corrected. CHF entails slow deterioration, interrupted by episodes of severe decompensation, and eventually death. Left ventricular dysfunction affects patients by causing tachycardia and tachypnea. Patients may appear hypotensive, dyspneic, or cyanotic, and confused or agitated due to hypoxia and poor cerebral perfusion (Fernandes et al., 2020). Right ventricular dysfunction causes congestion that affects patients by causing edema, unending cough, and ascites.
The patient’s dyspnea and orthopnea can be attributed to left ventricular dysfunction characterized by decreased cardiac output. On the other hand, right ventricular dysfunction has contributed to edema and abdominal swelling due to fluid congestion. Ethnic minority groups have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases like CHF due to exposure to cardiovascular risk factors.

Fernandes, S. L., Carvalho, R. R., Santos, L. G., Sá, F. M., Ruivo, C., Mendes, S. L., Martins, H., & Morais, J. A. (2020). Pathophysiology and Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: State of the Art and Prospects for the Future. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 114(1), 120–129.
Javed, Z., Haisum Maqsood, M., Yahya, T., Amin, Z., Acquah, I., Valero-Elizondo, J., … & Nasir, K. (2022). Race, racism, and cardiovascular health: applying a social determinants of health framework to racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 15(1), e007917.
Schwinger, R. H. G. (2021). Pathophysiology of heart failure. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy, 11(1), 263–276.


Be sure that your paper is no one than 1-2 content pages. You are to also include both a title page and a reference page.
The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)
Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

76-year-old female patient complains of weight gain, shortness of breath, peripheral edema, and abdominal swelling. She has a history of congestive heart failure and admits to not taking her diuretic, as it makes her “have to get up every couple hours to go to the bathroom.” She now has to sleep on two pillows in order to get enough air.
Be sure to also include a title and reference page. In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following
The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
How these processes interact to affect the patient.
At least three primary sources

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