NUR 600 Module 4 Diabetes, Glyburide and Teaching Points of Oral Antidiabetic Agents Discussion Paper

NUR 600 Module 4 Diabetes, Glyburide and Teaching Points of Oral Antidiabetic Agents Discussion Paper

NUR 600 Module 4 Diabetes, Glyburide and Teaching Points of Oral Antidiabetic Agents Discussion Paper

Diabetes, Glyburide and Teaching Points of Oral Antidiabetic Agents

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NUR 600 Module 4 Diabetes, Glyburide and Teaching Points of Oral Antidiabetic Agents Discussion Paper
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Difference between Diabetes Mellitus Type 1and Type 2
According to Dariya et al( 2023), diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that involves abnormally elevated blood glucose levels(hyperglycemia). Diabetes mellitus can either be type 1 or type 2. Diabetes mellitus type 1(T1DM) is commonly seen in children and adolescents. It is usually characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin secreting cells (beta cells) which consequently makes the pancreas unable to produce insulin (absolute deficiency). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the other hand usually affects patients later on in life i.e. middle aged and older patients and its due to underproduction of insulin and insulin resistance. As highlighted by Wong et al. (2022), genetics and environmental factors such as toxins and viral infections predispose one to T1DM while T2DM is linked to one’s lifestyle like obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Genetics are also thought to play a great role in the development of diabetes mellitus.

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How Glyburide Decreases Blood Sugar Levels
Glyburide a second-generation sulfonylurea is an oral antidiabetic agent with a high potency used in the management of T2DM.Glyburide blocks the potassium ATP -dependent channels on the membranes of beta cells by binding to sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR 1 )receptors increasing the production of insulin by these cells(Qais et al., 2021).In cases of hyperglycemia, SUR 1receptors close depolarizing the cell. The voltage gated calcium channels then open leading to the influx of calcium ions thus stimulating insulin secretion. It also decreases insulin clearance from the liver leading to increased plasma insulin levels
Key Teaching Points for Patients Taking Oral Antidiabetic Agents
Patient education is crucial in attaining good outcomes in management of any disease. Patients on these agents should be made aware of the fact that they are only meant to achieve glycemic control and not to cure them of their disease so at no point should they stop taking the drugs without their doctors’ advice (Hermanns et al.,2020). They should be educated on the importance of adhering to treatment as it is protective against diabetic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis and diabetic nephropathies. When prescribing oral antidiabetics to patients it is important for healthcare providers to educate them on some of the most common side effects they can experience which include hypoglycemia, constipation and diarrhea, weight loss and even weight gain.
Patients should be taught the importance of monitoring their blood glucose levels. This is crucial as it helps them track their progress. Patients should also be taught on lifestyle adjustments such incorporating physical exercise in their daily activities, sticking to proper nutrition and maintaining a healthy body weight (Kanaley et al., 2022). The patients should be cautioned against abusing alcohol while taking these agents. Drug storage should also be discussed in detail to avoid accidental ingestion by other people or even overdosing.

References.
Dariya, B., Chalikonda, G., Srivani, G., Alam, A., & Nagaraju, G. P. (2019). Pathophysiology, Etiology, Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes and Computational Approaches for Immune Targets and Therapy. Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, 39(4). https://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2019033126
Hermanns, N., Ehrmann, D., Finke-Groene, K., & Kulzer, B. (2020). Trends in diabetes self-management education: where are we coming from and where are we going? A narrative review. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 37(3), 436–447. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.14256
Kanaley, J. A., Colberg, S. R., Corcoran, M. H., Malin, S. K., Rodriguez, N. R., Crespo, C. J., Kirwan, J. P., & Zierath, J. R. (2022). Exercise/Physical Activity in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A Consensus Statement from the American College of Sports Medicine. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 54(2), 353–368. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002800
Qais, F. A., Sarwar, T., Ahmad, I., Khan, R. A., Shahzad, S. A., & Husain, F. M. (2021). Glyburide inhibits non-enzymatic glycation of HSA: An approach for the management of AGEs associated diabetic complications. International Journal Of Biological Macromolecules, 169, 143–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.096
Wong, Y. H., Wong, S. H., Wong, X. T., Yap, Q. Y., Yip, K. Y., Wong, L. Z., Chellappan, D. K., Bhattamisra, S. K., & Candasamy, M. (2022). Genetic associated complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Panminerva Medica, 64(2), 274–288. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04285-3

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Ms. Jones is 60 years old and obese. She has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and will be started on glyburide. She is very nervous about this diagnosis and concerned that she will need to give herself “shots.”

Explain the difference between diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2.

How does glyburide help decrease blood sugar levels?

What are the key teaching points for patients taking oral antidiabetic agents?

Submission Instructions:

Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.

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