NUR-550 APA Literature Review Summary Assessment Description Essay

NUR-550 APA Literature Review Summary Assessment Description Essay

NUR-550 APA Literature Review Summary Assessment Description Essay

Literature Review Summary

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The Covid-19 pandemic caused several negative impacts, both financially and in terms of health, forcing scientists to come up with vaccines in record time to try and tame the virus. However, ending the problem still requires collaborative and collective efforts and action at all levels, from the local to the global stage. While various behavioral efforts, such as wearing masks in public spaces, sanitization, and handwashing, helped in slowing down the spread of the virus, longer-term solutions may depend on various aspects, such as the use of vaccination (Shi et al.,2020). Even though there are currently a host of vaccines, a substantial number of people were and still are skeptical about taking the vaccines, leading to low rates of vaccine uptakes. Therefore, it is important to use various strategies to encourage people to take the Covid-19 vaccines.  Health education has gained increased prominence since the onset of the pandemic; hence it offers a suitable route for improving covid-19 vaccine uptake. As such, the purpose of this assignment is to perform a literature review on the importance of education in improving vaccine uptake.


PICOT statement: Among the general population and individuals at risk of covid-19, will the use of health education about covid-19 vaccination plans, as compared to no intervention, lead to a 50% increased willingness to take covid-19 vaccine within six months?

Search Methods

 The search strategy forms an integral part of a good literature search as it allows the researcher to obtain the most relevant article which is in line with the issue at hand. Therefore, a search method was employed to assist with the literature review. Various databases formed the basis of the literature search. The article databases used include Google scholar, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Medline. Keywords used as part of the search strategy include “risk of Covid-19”, “health education,” “vaccine uptake,” and “willingness to take the vaccine.” Since the pandemic occurred within the last five-year time frame, the publication dates were not used in the exclusion criteria.

Synthesis of the Literature

 The literature search yielded several articles, and ten articles were chosen that support the PICOT question. As such, eight of them will be reviewed in this section. In one of the articles, Motta et al. (2021) performed a study to determine the impact of educational messages in improving individuals’ willingness to take the Covid-19 vaccine. Using a qualitative study approach, the researchers recruited 7064 individuals to take part in the study. These individuals were offered pro-vaccine messages as an intervention while the data was collected and analyzed through survey and regression analysis, respectively. The researchers found that the pro-vaccine health messages substantially improved the individuals’ willingness to take the vaccine. This source supports the PICOT in that it shows that the use of pro-vaccine health messages as a form of health education led to an increased willingness to take the vaccine.

 Another study was conducted by James et al. (2021). This study was conducted to determine if the use of persuasive messages as an education strategy can impact Covid-19 vaccine uptake. In a quantitative study, patients were educated on the importance of taking the vaccine. While a survey was used to collect the data, regression analysis was applied to the analysis. As part of the key findings, the researchers noted that the use of persuasive messaging led to an increased willingness to take vaccines, influence others to do so, and become less judgmental about those who have taken the vaccine. This study is also relevant since it showed the importance of using health education to improve vaccine uptake.

 Jensen et al. (2022) explored the use of health education delivered through video-based messages. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational video-based messages in lowering hesitancy in taking the covid-19 vaccine. A quantitative research design was used where the researchers recruited a total of 1620 individuals to participate. Data collection and analysis were conducted through survey and regression analysis, respectively. The researchers found out that the messages that increased confidence in the vaccines drove the willingness to take the vaccine. The messages were also effective in increasing willingness to take the vaccine among the skeptical population. This research supports the project as it showed that the use of video-messages-based health education improved people’s willingness to take the vaccine.

 Piltch-Loeb et al. (2021) also conducted a study with the major aim of exploring the impact of channels for passing educational information on the Covid-19 vaccine. The researcher employed a quantitative design where 2650 participants were recruited to take part in the study. The researchers passed the vaccine education through various channels such as national tv, newspaper, and social media. The data was collected through a survey and analyzed through logistic regression analysis. As part of the findings, the researcher noted that the use of both traditional media and social media to pass vaccination education led to an increased likelihood of vaccine acceptance among the participants. Therefore, this study is also relevant to the PICOT as it shows that health education delivered through various media was effective in improving people’s will to take the vaccine.

  Li et al.(2022) explored the effect of education on Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy. Using a quantitative study design, a total of five hundred participants were recruited to take part in the study. The researchers collected data through a survey and completed the analysis using chi-square and regression analysis. The use of education significantly reduced vaccine hesitancy and improved their willingness to take the vaccine. As such, this source is also relevant as it proves the efficacy of education.

 Davis et al. (2022) conducted a study to determine if providing information contrasting the high effectiveness of covid-19 vaccine with the lower efficacy of the annual flu vaccine would increase vaccine uptake. Through a quantitative research design, the researchers recruited a total of four hundred and eighty-one participants. As part of the findings, offering such information about the safety of covid-19 vaccine improved the participants’ willingness and intentions to take the vaccine. This study supports the proposed solution as it has shown that the use of educational intervention was key in increasing individuals’ willingness.

Argote et al. (2021) explored the impact of education accomplished through vaccine campaigns in improving the willingness of individuals to take vaccines.  This study used a quantitative study design, and a total of two thousand individuals were recruited to take part. The researchers collected data through a vaccine survey. The provision of vaccine efficacy information improved the individual’s willingness to take the vaccine. Therefore, this article supports the in propose intervention since it has shown that educational campaigns positively influence individuals’ willingness to take Covid-19 vaccine.

Santos et al.(2021) evaluated the impact of messages targeting behavior on vaccination registration and acceptance. The research design employed was a quantitative research design, and a total of 9723 participants were recruited to take part in the study. The educational messages were designed to target the participant’s behavior, and the researcher collected data through a survey and email. As part of the findings, the researchers found that the intervention substantially increased the number of individuals registering and willing to take the covid-19 vaccine. This article supports the intervention since it shows that the educational messages positively impacted vaccine uptake.

Comparison of Articles

 The reviewed articles were published in the last three years. Hence they have recent information which supports the proposed project. The articles used different research designs. While one article employed a qualitative approach, the remaining seven used a quantitative study design approach. While the major focus of the article was the delivery of education, the researchers used various strategies to deliver education, for example, the use of educational messages (Motta et al.,2021), persuasive messages (James et al.,2021), video-based educational messages (Jensen et al.,2022) and the use of traditional and social media strategies (Piltch-Loeb et al.,2021). All the reviewed articles are also primary articles. Even though the researchers used different research approaches, all the articles supported the proposed project in their unique ways as they showed the efficacy of using health education to improve vaccine uptake.

Suggestions for Future Research

 The analysis of the literature led to the identification of certain gaps which should inform future research. For example, it is still not yet clear which form of health education could yield the best results. There was heterogeneity in the use of health education forms, making it difficult to know the most effective methods. Therefore, a meta-analysis can be conducted on various strategies to determine the most effective health educational strategy.


 Improving the Covid-19 uptake by the population forms a central part of the plan to help eliminate the pandemic. Hence effective strategies should be used to improve the vaccine uptake. Therefore, this literature review has focused on the use of health education as a strategy. All the reviewed articles showed the efficacy of health education. Therefore, this strategy should be implemented widely to increase vaccine uptake.


Argote, P., Barham, E., Daly, S. Z., Gerez, J. E., Marshall, J., & Pocasangre, O. (2021). The shot, the message, and the messenger: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Latin America. NPJ Vaccines, 6(1), 118.

Davis, C. J., Golding, M., & McKay, R. (2022). Efficacy information influences the intention to take the COVID‐19 vaccine. British Journal of Health Psychology, 27(2), 300–319.

James, E. K., Bokemper, S. E., Gerber, A. S., Omer, S. B., & Huber, G. A. (2021). Persuasive messaging to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake intentions. Vaccine, 39(49), 7158-7165.

Jensen, U. T., Ayers, S., & Koskan, A. M. (2022). Video-based messages to reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and nudge vaccination intentions. PloS One, 17(4), e0265736.

Li, P. C., Theis, S. R., Kelly, D., Ocampo, T., Berglund, A., Morgan, D., … & Burtson, K. (2022). Impact of an education intervention on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a military base population. Military Medicine, 187(Special Issue_13), e1516-e1522.

Motta, M., Sylvester, S., Callaghan, T., & Lunz-Trujillo, K. (2021). Encouraging COVID-19 vaccine uptake through effective health communication. Frontiers in Political Science, 3, 630133.

Piltch-Loeb, R., Savoia, E., Goldberg, B., Hughes, B., Verhey, T., Kayyem, J., … & Testa, M. (2021). Examining the effect of information channels on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Plos One, 16(5), e0251095.

Santos, H. C., Goren, A., Chabris, C. F., & Meyer, M. N. (2021). Effect of targeted behavioral science messages on COVID-19 vaccination registration among employees of a large health system: A randomized trial. JAMA Network Open, 4(7), e2118702-e2118702. Doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18702

Shih, H. I., Wu, C. J., Tu, Y. F., & Chi, C. Y. (2020). Fighting COVID-19: A quick review of diagnoses, therapies, and vaccines. Biomedical Journal, 43(4), 341-354.


APA Writing Checklist

Use this document as a checklist for each paper you will write throughout your GCU graduate program. Follow specific instructions indicated in the assignment and use this checklist to help ensure correct grammar and APA formatting. Refer to the APA resources available in the GCU Library and Student Success Center.

☒ APA paper template (located in the Student Success Center/Writing Center) is utilized for the correct format of the paper. APA style is applied, and format is correct throughout.

☒The title page is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☒ The introduction is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☒ Topic is well defined.

☒ Strong thesis statement is included in the introduction of the paper.

☒ The thesis statement is consistently threaded throughout the paper and included in the conclusion.

☒ Paragraph development: Each paragraph has an introductory statement, two or three sentences as the body of the paragraph, and a transition sentence to facilitate the flow of information. The sections of the main body are organized to reflect the main points of the author. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☒ All sources are cited. APA style and format are correctly applied and are free from error.

☒ Sources are completely and correctly documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and APA style, and format is free of error.

Scholarly Resources:Scholarly resources are written with a focus on a specific subject discipline and usually written by an expert in the same subject field. Scholarly resources are written for an academic audience.

Examples of Scholarly Resources include:Academic journals, books written by experts in a field, and formally published encyclopedias and dictionaries.

Peer-Reviewed Journals:Peer-reviewed journals are evaluated prior to publication by experts in the journal’s subject discipline. This process ensures that the articles published within the journal are academically rigorous and meet the required expectations of an article in that subject discipline.

Empirical Journal Article: This type of scholarly resource is a subset of scholarly articles that reports the original finding of an observational or experimental research study. Common aspects found within an empirical article include: literature review, methodology, results, and discussion.

Adapted from “Evaluating Resources: Defining Scholarly Resources,” located in Research Guides in the GCU Library.

☒ The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. Utilize writing resources such as Grammarly, LopesWrite report, and ThinkingStormto check your writing.


NUR-550 APA Literature Review Summary Assessment Description

The purpose of this assignment is to write a review of the research articles you evaluated in your Topic 5 “Evidence-Based Practice Project: Evaluation of Literature” assignment. If you have been directed by your instructor to select different articles in order to meet the requirements for a literature review or to better support your evidence-based practice project proposal, complete this step prior to writing your review.

A literature review provides a concise comparison of the literature for the reader and explains how the research demonstrates support for your PICOT. You will use the literature review in this assignment in NUR-590, during which you will write a final paper detailing your evidence-based practice project proposal.

In a paper of 1,250-1,500, select eight of the ten articles you evaluated that demonstrate clear support for your evidence-based practice and complete the following for each article:

Introduction – Describe the clinical issue or problem you are addressing. Present your PICOT statement.

Search methods – Describe your search strategy and the criteria that you used in choosing and searching for your articles.

Synthesis of the literature – For each article, write a paragraph discussing the main components (subjects, methods, key findings) and provide rationale for how the article supports your PICOT.

Comparison of articles – Compare the articles (similarities and differences, themes, methods, conclusions, limitations, controversies).

Suggestions for future research: Based on your analysis of the literature, discuss identified gaps and which areas require further research.

Conclusion – Provide a summary statement of what you found in the literature.

Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of your paper.

Refer to the “Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal – Assignment Overview” document for an overview of the evidence-based practice project proposal assignments.

You are required to cite eight peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

MBA-MSN; MSN-Nursing Education; MSN Acute Care Nurse Practitioner-Adult-Gerontology; MSN Family Nurse Practitioner; MSN-Health Informatics; MSN-Health Care Quality and Patient Safety; MSN-Leadership in Health Care Systems; MSN-Public Health Nursing

3.2: Analyze appropriate research from databases and other information sources to improve health care practices and processes.

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