NRS 434 Topic 2 Discussion1 And 2 Paper

NRS 434 Topic 2 Discussion1 And 2 Paper

NRS 434 Topic 2 Discussion1 And 2 Paper

Topic 2 DQ 1

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Child abuse and maltreatment have existed for years, even though recent events have seen the rates reduce. It is never limited to a particular age group but can occur to children in school-age, preschool, toddler, and infant years (Palmer et al.,2023). Therefore, it is important for care providers and other stakeholders to identify forms of child abuse and maltreatment and use proven ways to solve them. The age group chosen for this discussion are those between the age of six to twelve years and school-going. These children also face child abuse and maltreatment, and the types of abuse commonly observed among children in this group include sexual abuse, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and neglect (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2018). Children in this age group can experience these forms of abuse at the hands of parents, siblings, caregivers, relatives, and even teachers.

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It is important to have a knowledge of the warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings that could be an indication of child abuse. Some of those which the nurse may see include a child fearing going to school, sleeping while in class, having little or no interest in the surroundings, having bruises, being unhappy, having a lot of fear, and looking untidy and unkempt (Vonderlin et al.,2018). The nurse should also observe if the caretaker’s explanations of the child’s state are not adding up and are twisted. Some of the cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse include circumcision without putting the child under anesthesia, as some communities prefer it that way to show the child’s strength, perseverance, and brevity.

The reporting mechanism in our state includes calling child hotlines in cases of abuse incidents considered emergencies. The Child Reporting System is also an online platform where child neglect or abuse cases are reported. Child protection offices are also open during normal working hours, and individuals are allowed to walk in and make reports. The nurse’s responsibility related to the reporting of suspected child abuse is being a designated reporter, hence has to make a comprehensive report regarding the case. Two factors that increase the vulnerability of a child to abuse in the age group selected include caregiver or parent factors and child factors such as mental and physical health (Assink et al.,2019).

References

Assink, M., van der Put, C. E., Meeuwsen, M. W., de Jong, N. M., Oort, F. J., Stams, G. J. J., & Hoeve, M. (2019). Risk factors for child sexual abuse victimization: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 145(5), 459. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/bul0000188

Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2018). Wong’s nursing care of infants and children-E-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Palmer, L., Font, S., Rebbe, R., & Putnam-Hornstein, E. (2023). Lifetime rates and types of subsequent child protection system contact following a first report of neglect: An age-stratified analysis. PLoS One, 18(4), e0283534. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0283534

Vonderlin, R., Kleindienst, N., Alpers, G. W., Bohus, M., Lyssenko, L., & Schmahl, C. (2018). Dissociation in victims of childhood abuse or neglect: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Medicine, 48(15), 2467-2476. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718000740

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Topic 2 DQ 2

The process of physical assessment of both the children and adults plays a major role in knowing more and various aspects of the individuals. Therefore, as part of training, nurses are aware that the process of physical assessment starts when they first encounter the patient and start noting down vital information, including respiratory rates, body posture, skin color, and temperature, among other things (Jarvis, 2023). Physical assessments of a child and an adult have similarities and differences. In both cases, a detailed examination is carried out by following four main processes, including inspection, palpations, percussion, and auscultation. In addition, in both cases, relevant questions must be asked to obtain relevant data (Chen & Liu.,2021). One of the main differences is that information is usually obtained from the adult, while in the case of the child, the parent or the caregiver has to help in answering the assessment questions.

The nurse also uses various strategies to offer instruction during assessment and adapts communication to offer explanations. The nurse asks questions and educates the patient or caregiver on any abnormalities observed. In case some data is impressive, then the nurse can commend the patient or caregiver as a morale booster. The nurse has to adapt communication, for example, using simple words to explain technical terms to the patient for better understanding (Dalton et al.,2019). The nurse may also need to adjust the tone depending on the patient. For example, in the case of a child, the nurse may need to speak with a low tone and use simple language. However, in the case of an adult, a louder voice may be used for more clarity. Nurses can also use various strategies to encourage engagement during the assessment. Some of the strategies include using simple language, repeating words, and active listening (Arnold & Boggs, 2019). Babies can be given toys to help them cooperate and calm down.

References

Arnold, E. C., & Boggs, K. U. (2019). Interpersonal relationships e-book: professional communication skills for nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Chen, S. L., & Liu, C. C. (2021). Development and evaluation of a physical examination and health assessment course. Nurse Education Today107, 105116.

Dalton, L., Rapa, E., Ziebland, S., Rochat, T., Kelly, B., Hanington, L., … & Richter, L. (2019). Communication with children and adolescents about the diagnosis of a life-threatening condition in their parent. The Lancet393(10176), 1164–1176. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33202-1

Jarvis, C. (2023). Physical examination and health assessment-Canadian E-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Topic 2 DQ 1

Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age. Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. Describe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse. Identify two factors that increase the vulnerability of a child for abuse in the age group you have selected.

Topic 2 DQ 2

Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult. In addition to describing the similar/different aspects of the physical assessment, explain how the nurse would offer instruction during the assessment, how communication would be adapted to offer explanations, and what strategies the nurse would use to encourage engagement.

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