Metabolic Alkalosis Discussion Question Paper

Metabolic Alkalosis Discussion Question Paper

Metabolic Alkalosis Discussion Question Paper

DQ Question: Metabolic Alkalosis
Alkalosis refers to a decrease in the free hydrogen ion levels of the blood and is indicated by an arterial blood pH above 7.45. Metabolic Alkalosis is characterized by a Bicarbonate excess, that is, concentration in blood is greater than 26 mEq/L. Metabolic Alkalosis is caused by any disorder or condition that creates the acid-base imbalance through either an increase of bases, base excess, or a decrease of acids, acid deficit (Emmett, 2020). The increase of base components or base excess is caused by oral ingestion of bases such as antacids containing sodium bicarbonate or calcium carbonate and in Milk-alkali syndrome. Parenteral base administration, such as blood transfusion, sodium bicarbonate, and total parenteral nutrition, can also cause bicarbonate excess. Other risk factors include excessive vomiting, nasogastric suctioning, hypercortisolism, hyperaldosteronism, and use of Thiazide diuretics.

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Most symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis result from the low calcium and potassium levels that usually occur with alkalosis. The disorder results in a change in the function of the cardiac, nervous, neuromuscular, and respiratory systems. Clinical manifestations include slow and shallow respirations, decreased respiratory effort related to skeletal muscle weakness, hyperactive reflexes, increased heart rate, atrial tachycardia, and dysrhythmias (Tinawi, 2021). The differential diagnoses for metabolic alkalosis include Metabolic Acidosis, Respiratory Acidosis, and Respiratory Alkalosis.
Metabolic alkalosis is diagnosed by measuring serum electrolytes and arterial blood gases. The hallmark of a base excess acidosis is an ABG result with an elevated pH and an elevated bicarbonate level along with normal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. Treatment of Metabolic alkalosis includes the administration of electrolytes to replace those lost, primarily using an IV chloride-containing solution (Tinawi, 2021). IV HCl is indicated in severe metabolic alkalosis (pH >7.55) or when sodium or potassium chloride cannot be administered.
 
References
Emmett, M. (2020). Metabolic Alkalosis: A Brief Pathophysiologic Review. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN, 15(12), 1848–1856. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.16041219
Tinawi, M. (2021). Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Management of Metabolic Alkalosis. Cureus, 13(1), e12841. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12841

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please answer DQ question in full, minimum 250 words thank you

Choose one of the genitourinary, renal, or sexually transmitted disease disorders covered in your assigned readings for this topic.

Summarize the pathology, etiology, modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors, pertinent signs and symptoms, differential diagnoses, diagnostics, treatment regimens to include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological, and environmental and nutritional approaches for one of the following. Try not to post duplicate posts on the same subject. Support your summary and recommendations plan with a minimum of two APRN-approved scholarly resources.

Acute Tubular Necrosis

Glomerulonephritis

Interstitial NephritisNephrolithiasis

Pyelonephritis

Urinary Tract Infection

Renal Artery Stenosis

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

Contrast Induced Nephropathy

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Alkalosis

Sexually Transmitted Infections

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