EDUC 671 Curriculum Evaluation Paper

EDUC 671 Curriculum Evaluation Paper

EDUC 671 Curriculum Evaluation Paper

Curriculum Evaluation

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Curriculum evaluation is the process used to measure or judge the extent to which the courses and programs developed in a curriculum and the included learning activities and opportunities produce the expected learning results in the students (Khan et al., 2019). The process helps the evaluators to gather information that helps inform them on whether various aspects of a curriculum should be accepted as they are, changed, or eliminated. Among the aspects evaluated in a curriculum evaluation are the relevance and complexity of the educational content, teaching methods and environment, timing, and student learning outcomes.

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Nurse educators play a major role in curriculum evaluation, from data collection, analysis, and compiling the evaluation report. However, different considerations should be put in place before and after the evaluation to ensure that the results are implemented. Ongoing curriculum development mandated continuous curriculum evaluation and reports implementation. The objectives of a curriculum evaluation determine whether it is short-term or long-term. Different evaluation methods are used depending on the components of the curriculum evaluated. This essay presents the details of the concept of curriculum evaluation based on the curriculum analysis and course design used in the previous assessments.

The Importance of Ongoing Curriculum Evaluation

Evaluating any curriculum is essential and should be an ongoing process. Ongoing curriculum evaluation ensures that all the aspects of the curriculum are in place and produce the desired outcomes in learning. The process also enhances continuous improvement and ensures that the curriculum meets the program’s goals and objectives (Murwaningsih & Fauziah, 2023). Ongoing curriculum evaluation is essential for various reasons, and it benefits different stakeholders that are relevant to the process, program, and evaluation outcomes.

One of the major importance of continuous curriculum evaluation is assessing the effectiveness of the education offered in the curriculum to ensure that it remains relevant with the constant changes in the education field. The institution leaders, educators, and members of the public need to know whether the education offered using the curriculum is valuable and effective and if the learners are receiving the most relevant education based on the current changes in the field. Public members may include educational and non-educational bodies, education financiers such as individual student sponsors, and parents concerned about the quality of educational outcomes from a particular curriculum.

Additionally, every program/curriculum has set goals and objectives. Ongoing evaluation helps ensure that the curriculum is on the right track and meets the set goals and objectives through continuous improvement. Murwaningsih and Fauziah (2023) note that continuous curriculum improvement is made by making the necessary changes by eliminating faulty parts of the curriculum, revising sub-standard parts, and adding new and relevant courses that might have been left out during curriculum development.

Ongoing curriculum evaluation is also essential for the parent institution, students, and educators to clear doubts and get clarification on any courses or any other aspects of the curriculum that may be ambiguous or require additional information. For instance, the educators in a parent institution may require clarification on conflicting or ambiguous courses in a curriculum, thus seeking clarification from ongoing curriculum evaluation. Additionally, educators can identify if the curriculum will effectively facilitate the delivery of the necessary content and achieve the desired learning outcomes for their students through curriculum evaluation. Feedback from educators is vital in informing changes in the curriculum to make it more effective and appropriate for the program in question. 

Furthermore, ongoing curriculum evaluation is essential in informing curriculum decisions. The institution’s administrators need to know whether the curriculum is effective and therefore make appropriate decisions regarding curriculum implementation, review, revision, or elimination. These administrators are best suited to inform other stakeholders in education on the ongoing curriculum evaluation reports, thus ensuring that all stakeholders are informed on any changes made to the curriculum. These stakeholders include curriculum publishers, healthcare institutions, and professional bodies like the American Nurses Association. These stakeholders are interested in the ongoing curriculum evaluation reports to gain an understanding of whether the program is delivering the necessary education required to equip learners with the necessary knowledge and skills required in the field. The stakeholders provide the necessary feedback to maintain the curriculum updated and appropriate for providing learners with the necessary knowledge and skills needed in the field.

Ongoing curriculum evaluation is also important in enhancing student participation in curriculum development and implementation. Since some of the data collected to enhance curriculum evaluation is collected from the students, the evaluators can get feedback relating to the courses in the curriculum, especially in aspects such as course timing, evaluations, and appropriateness from the students’ perspectives. Despite the fact that students have less influence in curriculum development, given that the curriculum developers and the parent institution administrators make the major decisions, their input and perspectives are essential in the ongoing curriculum evaluation and implementation process since it provides an understanding of learning needs.

Based on the essence of an ongoing curriculum evaluation, various things can happen if an evaluation is not evaluated constantly. First and foremost, it cannot be easy to understand the effectiveness of the courses or the entire program. As mentioned earlier, continuous curriculum evaluation provides information on the effectiveness and appropriateness of the curriculum in providing the necessary skills and knowledge needed for the program. Therefore, the lack of an ongoing curriculum evaluation makes identifying the curriculum’s effectiveness challenging, leading to other challenges.

Without a measure of curriculum effectiveness, the parent institution may have a poor reputation and low incentives. It would also make it hard for students and other stakeholders to believe in the quality of education provided in the institution. Therefore, the institution’s reputation may be tarnished, leading to fewer students and, thus, low incentives. Accreditation agencies and institutions may not provide the necessary approvals without continuous curriculum evaluation reports.

In addition, without a continuous curriculum evaluation, deficits in the curriculum cannot be identified, and thus changes cannot be made. Therefore, the curriculum ends up providing substandard educational content to the learners, leading to a poor reputation, a decrease in the number of students showing interest in the institution, and the unacceptability of the learners in the practice field. Lack of ongoing curriculum evaluation may also provide outdated content due to a lack of updates and continuous improvement.

Important Criteria of Consideration in Curriculum Evaluation

Curriculum evaluation is a process that should be carried out diligently to ensure that no essential consideration is left out. Different vital factors influence the curriculum, also used as the criteria that should be considered in the curriculum evaluation process. These considerations include;

  1. The Impact of the Curriculum
  2. Relevance to producing the desired learning outcomes (Collard et al., 2019)
  3. Appropriateness based on the validity and reliability of the curriculum
  4. The comprehensiveness of the curriculum
  5. Continuity/sustainability of the curriculum
  6. Alignment with the relevant standards
  7. Objectives consistency (Billings & Halstead, 2019)

The impact of a curriculum means the intended outcomes that the learners ought to achieve as the results of learning using a particular curriculum. Evaluating the impact of a curriculum is essential since it informs further curriculum development and improvement based on the outcomes that can be seen in learners who have gone through a similar curriculum or program. The impact of a curriculum is an important consideration. Unlike other criteria, the impact is a long-term criterion focusing on the social, economic, and environmental effects on students, institutions, and the public. The criterion can be evaluated years after the implementation of the program.

A curriculum should be developed to meet the learning needs of the learners and enable them to meet the desired learning outcomes. According to Collard et al. (2019), the relevance of a curriculum is evaluated based on the curriculum objectives and their ability to enable the learners to achieve the desired learning outcomes. The relevance of a curriculum is essential since it shows the strength of the curriculum and its appropriateness in shaping learners and providing them with the necessary skills, knowledge, and competencies necessary for playing their role in the field.

The other criterion essential for curriculum evaluation is the appropriateness of the curriculum based on its validity and reliability. The validity factor seeks to answer whether the curriculum produces the intended outcomes. In contrast, the reliability factor seeks to assess whether the curriculum is able to produce similar outcomes in consistency over time. It is essential to evaluate the appropriateness of a curriculum based on its validity and reliability, thus determining whether changes should be made to the curriculum.

Any nursing curriculum is expected to be comprehensive. Nursing education, for example, is a complex program with many detailed concepts. The Master of Science in Nursing Education (MSN-Ed) curriculum should be comprehensive to cover all the concepts and competencies required for the nurse educator. Evaluating the comprehensiveness of a curriculum is crucial since it assesses whether the curriculum is extensive enough to cover all aspects required to be taught for the appropriate student competency development. Research shows that comprehensive curricula encompass appropriate course content and content to enhance student development in critical thinking, understanding, reasoning, and application of course content in the field.

The sustainability or continuity of a curriculum is also a vital evaluation criteria factor that should be considered. Sustainability or curriculum continuity is the ability of a curriculum to serve an institution over a long time. The curriculum development and implementation process is complex, time-consuming, and requires a lot of funds. Therefore, curricula developed should be sustainable to avoid unnecessary use of funds to develop new curricula. Hence, evaluating the sustainability and continuity of a curriculum is vital in ensuring it is appropriate to meet learners’ needs and develop the desired outcomes over a long time.

The nursing profession is built on various professional and practice standards. Similarly, nursing education, which is the foundation of the nursing profession, should meet these professional and practice standards. Professional standards a curriculum must meet include the required competencies, skills, credit hours for different courses, and the balance between the required class and practicum time. It is, therefore, essential to evaluate curricula based on their alignment with the standards, to ensure that it complies with the laws and regulations.

According to Billings and Halstead (2019), every nursing curriculum has goals and objectives that align with the program and parent institution’s mission, vision, educational philosophy, and program framework. The objectives are also developed based on a program’s required skills and competencies. It is critical to evaluate the consistency of the curriculum based on the objectives, thus ensuring that the course content and delivery method align with the objectives.

Pilot Testing in Curriculum Evaluation

Pilot tests are processes conducted before research or evaluation to determine the likelihood of success when the research is conducted or intervention is implemented. Pilot testing in the curriculum is whereby a curriculum is controlled before it is implemented to assess whether it is likely to succeed after being implemented. A pilot test can also be conducted on an implemented curriculum to identify its strengths and weaknesses; thus, plan to deal with the weaknesses and build on the strengths to ensure the curriculum is appropriate and relevant. Additionally, Cannon et al. (2020) note that pilot testing in nursing education curricula helps to inform implementation decision-making and avoid the wastage of resources through the implementation of curricula that are not feasible.

Pilot testing in nursing education curricula can be challenging due to the required considerations that should be put in place to ensure the relevance and appropriateness of a curriculum. However, pilot testing should not be missed out since it potentially provides feedback that helps determine a curriculum’s viability, feasibility, and effectiveness before implementation. The effectiveness of a curriculum is best determined by its ability to produce the desired outcomes among the learners, who are the recipients of the curriculum. Therefore, curriculum pilot tests should involve the students actively.

Furthermore, pilot testing can identify the weaknesses in a curriculum, thus enabling the developers to improve the curriculum by engaging in curriculum improvement. Additionally, pilot testing is used as an initial evaluation to determine the appropriateness of the curriculum to achieve the desired learning objectives, thus avoiding resource wastage. According to Ingram et al. (2019), pilot testing should be done by an evaluation team similar to the curriculum development team regarding stakeholders. For instance, the team should include representatives from educators, students, the curriculum review committee, institutional leaders, financiers, and other relevant stakeholders. However, the pilot test can only be run by the curriculum committee and the evaluators. Successful pilot testing entails the engagement of all the relevant stakeholders and the ability of the pilot test to identify the strengths and weaknesses and the things that should be eliminated or included in the curriculum after the report.

An example of a successful curriculum pilot test has been carried out to completion and provided the necessary report. The pilot testing process begins with identifying an appropriate class in which the pilot test will be conducted. A class beginning the program is usually the best to conduct a pilot study since there are no expectations, and the class is new to the system. Conducting a pilot test in a class of continuing students may lead to bias in the feedback provided since the students may already have a perception of the new curriculum. The second step is selecting courses in the curriculum in which the pilot test is being conducted. The courses selected should be mainly introductory and introduced to the entire class to ensure extensive feedback is received. Cannon et al. (2020) note that as the course is being offered to the selected class, it should be controlled and monitored to identify whether it provides the required content and covers all the learning needs for this particular class and program.

Furthermore, the students receiving the pilot test course will be observed, and their feedback will be collected. The competencies achieved from the course will also be evaluated and recorded. Most importantly, it is prudent to note the additional costs of facilitating teaching, assessments, and evaluation to include in the feedback report, thus helping inform the proposed curriculum preceded by the pilot test. In addition, the process should be conducted in two other classes for two-three consecutive years, thus providing adequate information for the pilot test report. The results from the three years are compared and analyzed to determine if the desired results are achieved. A successful pilot test reaches this level and provides a report on the outcomes of the courses, including their relevance and appropriateness in covering the intended educational content and developing student perspectives (Cannon et al., 2020). 

 However, some institutions conduct pilot tests for only one class. Conducting a pilot test for multiple courses in the proposed curriculum and multiple classes enables the team to have a robust report. It reduces the chances of missing out on essential information. Additionally, a robust report helps inform the proposed curriculum better, making it more effective and appropriate. Ongoing curriculum evaluation is also essential in the pilot test since it helps determine if the proposed curriculum will be implemented. According to Cahyadi et al. (2021), curriculum pilot testing should be evaluated continuously to ensure that the cross-checking between the proposed curriculum and the pilot test courses is done diligently, ensuring that the main objective of the pilot test is met. The main objective of curriculum pilot testing is to identify whether the proposed curriculum can prepare learners to gain the necessary academic capabilities to develop knowledge and intellect, preparing them to enter the field of practice. The feedback on this aspect is gained from the students and educators and incorporated into the pilot test report.

Finally, it is worth noting that not all courses in a proposed curriculum fit the inclusion criteria for a curriculum or program. Therefore, the pilot test report may advise excluding these courses from a curriculum. In addition, if a curriculum does not meet the minimum requirements to support implementation, as seen in the pilot test, it is either scraped off or taken back to the initial curriculum development stage. Even if a pilot study supported a curriculum, it is essential to ensure continuous curriculum evaluation and improvement to ensure the curriculum stats are updated, relevant and appropriate.

Short-Term and Long-Term Evaluations for Process Improvement and their Importance to Curriculum Development

Curriculum development requires both long-term and short-term curriculum evaluation. Summative and formative evaluations are among the types of evaluations that help facilitate process improvement. Summative evaluations are usually long-term and target a specific outcome. In contrast, formative evaluations are an ongoing process aimed at short-term process improvement in a curriculum. Short-term evaluation is the type of evaluation that is done over a short time, mainly in one to three semesters. Long-term evaluations, on the other hand, are an ongoing evaluation process that takes about one to twenty years. According to Weaver et al. (2023), the frequency of evaluating a curriculum can also be used to determine whether the evaluation is long-term or short-term. However, short-term evaluation can be termed as long-term when the curriculum is evaluated in an ongoing process in every period, for instance, a semester, over a long period.

Several curriculum evaluation modes exist. The selection of an evaluation model used to evaluate a curriculum depends on the evaluation’s type and objectives. One of the models used in the evaluation of course outcomes is Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model (Li et al., 2019). The model is a short-term evaluation model that is also used in curriculum evaluation. Li et al. (2019) note that the model assesses the effectiveness of training and focuses on behavior change and how students perform based on the learned content. In curriculum evaluation, the model is used to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction delivery and learning strategies and their ability to promote behavior change among the learners.

Tyler’s objective model is the other evaluation model used in short-term evaluation for process improvement. The model evaluated the effectiveness of a curriculum based on the student’s performance as it is measured in the student outcomes (Weaver et al., 2023). In addition, Weaver et al. (2023) note that the model is behavioral. It measures the achievement of a curriculum’s goals and objectives by addressing the identified pitfalls through different methods to boost the student’s educational performance and related learning outcomes.

The countenance evaluation model, also known as the Stake’s curriculum evaluation model, is the other evaluation model used in evaluating education curricula. According to Anwar et al. (2019), the countenance evaluation mode is a congruence-contingency model that evaluates curriculum by comparing the intended and observed issues related to outcomes and educational transactions. The model bases its analysis on the difference between what was planned in the curriculum and what has happened or has been observed by implementing the curriculum. The model is used in long-term and short-term curriculum evaluation for process improvement. Unlike other long-term formative assessments, this model judges the curriculum based on administrative factors (Anwar et al., 2019). For instance, the curriculum implementation process and outcomes are assessed based on the administrative conditions or factors affecting learning and teaching.

The other curriculum evaluation models used in the short-term and long-term evaluation include a responsive and naturalistic evaluation. According to Ford et al. (2020), responsive evaluation is an attitude, short-term formative evaluation that focuses on determining the response of different relevant stakeholders to the curriculum. The responsiveness to the curriculum is measured using the acceptance of the curriculum to the educators, learners, regulatory agencies, and the parent institution. Each of these stakeholders has a different perspective on the curriculum based on how it affects them. Understanding their perspectives is vital in informing continuous curriculum process improvement. Despite the different curriculum evaluation models available and used in long-term and short-term curriculum evaluation, the overall importance is achieving the curriculum goals and objectives in a continuous improvement process.

Importance of Short-Term Evaluation

Short-term curriculum evaluation is essential in identifying the immediate results of the implementation process. It also helps determine the most affected stakeholders’ overall acceptance of the curriculum, thus changing the aspects that affect them adversely. Additionally, short-term evaluation is vital to the curriculum development process since it informs the curriculum development and review committee on the quick changes that should be made to ensure it is implemented successfully. The minor flawed aspects of the curriculum process are addressed. Additionally, feedback from short-term evaluations encompasses the information on the educational content, the learning needs, and strategies used by the committee to monitor the curriculum implementation, thus ensuring that all stakeholders are comfortable with the curriculum and its implementation. Since short-term curriculum evaluation focuses on learning and teaching strategies, the evaluation reports provide the committee with the mandate to ensure that learners get the best learning experience and outcomes by addressing minor flawed issues.

Importance of Long-Term Evaluation

As mentioned earlier, long-term evaluations include summative evaluations conducted over a long time, mainly from one to twenty years. The overall essence of long-term curriculum evaluation on process improvement and development is identifying the effectiveness of a curriculum in producing the desired outcomes. Nursing education is a diverse and dynamic profession that is informed by new evidence-based practices and healthcare technology from time to time. Therefore, the learning needs of nursing students keep changing as new evidence-based practices and guidelines emerge. Therefore, it is essential for curriculums to maintain a constant long-term evaluation process to ensure that it is updated and in line with the new learning needs and environments. Cannon et al. (2020) note that the ongoing curriculum evaluation also helps to ensure that the curriculum is effective, efficient, and in line with the new regulatory, policy, and accreditation guidelines.  

Additionally, the long-term evaluation of a curriculum is essential in determining the long-term impact of the curriculum on the learners, thus informing robust changes in the development of a curriculum. For example, long-term curriculum evaluation of the MSN-Ed curriculum can be used to assess the impact it has had on nurse educators over time, thus determining whether changes should be made to the curriculum to ensure that future nurse educators are better equipped with the necessary skills and competencies to play their role effectively. The impact of a curriculum extends beyond meeting course or program goals and objectives to playing a significant role in the future of the profession. Therefore, long-term curriculum evaluation is vital in informing curriculum development and securing the future of the profession.

Every educational institution should devise a process for implementing both short-term and long-term curriculum evaluation forms to enhance continuous curriculum improvement and development. The process by which an institution can implement the evaluation types is by selecting an evaluation team, identifying the model of evaluation to be used in short-term and long-term evaluations, devising a way to compile evaluation reports for comparison and analysis, and finally, using the curriculum development/review committee to use the analysis to identify the areas of the curriculum that should be changed over time, or whether a new curriculum should be implemented altogether.

Application of Evidence-Based Nursing Concepts, Theories, and Best-Practices in Improving Curriculum Development

Nursing heavily depends on new and existing concepts, theories, and best practices to guide the profession. Various nursing concepts that can be used to improve curriculum development exist. According to Potter et al. (2020), nursing concepts necessary for a particular curriculum or program should be incorporated into its development to make it more relevant, realistic, and appropriate in producing the desired learning outcomes. For example, a nursing program such as MSN-Ed should include nursing concepts such as curriculum development, assessment and evaluation, teaching methods and strategies in nursing education, and patient education. These are some of the most essential concepts in the program, encompassing the roles played by nurse educators.

To play the nurse educator role effectively, the nursing education learners should go through a curriculum that has been developed in consideration of the nursing concepts that are essential in nursing education. Additionally, since the nurse educators are being prepared to deliver holistic instructional content to nurse students, other essential concepts that can be applied to improve curriculum development include nursing care planning, Interprofessional collaboration, communication, pharmacology, social determinants of health, and trauma-informed nursing care, among others.

Nursing theories are the foundation and the backbone of nursing practice and education. Pereira et al. (2020) note that nursing theories for the basis of different concepts in nursing education since they explain various nursing phenomena, increasing the understanding of concepts and validating nursing actions. Additionally, nursing theories provide the frameworks needed to develop effective practice and dyadic programs. According to Hung et al. (2019), the nursing theory provides the necessary perspectives on learning and the learning process, thus informing the curriculum developers on how to incorporate nursing theories into the curriculum/program, ensuring consistency in the course content, objectives, assessment, evaluation, and the learning factors that can be used to ensure that the content is delivered effectively.

Furthermore, nursing theories can be used to enhance the improvement of curriculum development by guiding the setting of goals and objectives within a particular curriculum or program. Learning theories can also be applied to assist the curriculum developers in identifying the best teaching and learning methods that should be applied in a curriculum, thus ensuring that the learning needs are consistent with the selected learning methods and teaching strategies, hence enhancing curriculum instruction effectiveness and achievement of the desired learning outcomes. Behavioral theories can also be used to promote the different aspects of learning in relation to behavior. One of the goals of nursing programs and curricula is transforming the learner both professionally and personally, including behavior. The consideration of behavioral theories in the development of nursing curricula can therefore enhance the improvement of curriculum development.

According to Torres-Alzate (2019), nursing education and practice are always updated to fit the global nursing standards and evidence-based practices as they emerge. Nursing evidence-based practices are the practices that have been tested through nursing research and found effective. Some of the current evidence-based practices in nursing education include the use of simulations, blended learning, and game learning. For instance, simulations in nursing education have been found effective through research producing desired learning outcomes in nursing. They are also effective in improving the critical-thinking skills of the learners through the use of imagination, developing experiences that are almost similar to real-life clinical experiences, and using them to enhance understanding during learning. These best practices can be applied to improve curriculum development by improving learners’ and educators’ experiences and ensuring that the curriculum incorporates current best practices.

However, it is worth noting that curriculum development and improvement is a continuous process. Therefore, the influence of evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can only be felt if the curriculum is evaluated constantly and the curriculum evaluation reports are analyzed and incorporated into the curriculum continuously. The curriculum evaluation and development committee should always be on the lookout for modifications in new evidence-based nursing concepts and best practices to ensure that the curriculum’s educational content remains relevant, appropriate, and current.

The improvement of curriculum development relies on nursing theories, evidence-based practices, and nursing concepts. These theories, evidence-based practices, and best practices are obtained from current research studies and clinical trials. Therefore, the curriculum development team must be active in research and informed on current research issues to avoid being left out in curriculum improvement and development.

Appropriate Accreditation Body and the Accreditation Evaluation Criteria

Despite the continuous curriculum evaluation facilitated by parent institutions, any changes in a curriculum or program should get the approval of the relevant accreditation bodies. The appropriate accreditation body that can be used to approve changes in an MSN-Ed curriculum is the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN). Accrediting a program or curriculum is essential since it influences the program’s recognition. Additionally, accreditation of a curriculum or program enhances the approval of the learners under the curriculum or program to be eligible for being examined by the relevant examination agencies (ACEN, 2023).

The selected curriculum is the MSN-Ed curriculum offered at Sacred Heart University. The curriculum aims to provide nursing educators with the necessary skills and competencies to play the nurse educator role in academic settings, staff development, and patient education. The ACEN agency accredits all the nursing programs in the institution. Nursing programs like the MSN-Ed are evaluated based on the six ACEN merit standards. These standards are; resources, outcomes, students, faculty, staff, and curriculum (ACEN, 2023). Curriculum evaluation facilitated by ACEN focuses on reviewing all the aspects of the program using different evaluation criteria. The criteria entail assessing whether the nursing curriculum is appropriate to support the achievement of the end-program expected student learning outcomes and that the outcomes are consistent with the nursing education requirements as recommended by nursing educational organizations and agencies.

Additionally, the accreditation agency mandates the nursing education curriculum to be consistent with professional practice, align with the institutional program framework, and include all the necessary competencies to meet the nurse educator certification requirements. The standard guidelines and the learning outcomes of the curriculum should also be articulated, developed in the involvement of all the relevant internal and external stakeholders, and evaluated and reviewed regularly to ensure it entails current and relevant content (ACEN, 2023).

Furthermore, the curriculum should reflect the theoretical and practice standards/nursing concepts that align with the nursing education practice standards. The course evaluation methods included in the curriculum should also be comprehensive and able to measure the professional and practice competencies and achieve the expected learning outcomes. More so, ACEN dictates the course timing of a curriculum to ensure that the total credit hours are appropriate in achieving student learning outcomes and align with governmental recommendations and policies (ACEN, 2023).

The accreditation agency also mandates that the curriculum entails a written agreement that specifies the expectations of all the relevant stakeholders, educators, and students. In addition, the instructional delivery materials, methods, and strategies should be appropriate and consistent for meeting the expected learning outcomes. To be accredited, the curriculum must meet all the ACEN expectations and requirements mentioned above. Therefore, the curriculum evaluation team should use the ACEN evaluation manual to cross-check and ensure that the curriculum meets the evaluation criteria, thus promoting its implementation, acceptance, and success. The evaluation results should be applied to make the necessary changes and ensure that the curriculum meets all the requirements for approval.

Conclusion

Curriculum evaluation is a complex process with various considerations, as seen in the analysis above. The curriculum evaluation committee reviews the curriculum’s effects on all the relevant stakeholders, such as students, education financiers, accreditation and professional agencies and bodies, educators, parent institution leaders, the community, and the institution. There are various evaluation models used in curriculum evaluation. Curriculum evaluation can be short-term or long-term, depending on the purpose of the evaluation. Additionally, the differences in the type of evaluation may depend on its focus. Curriculum evaluation may focus on the student, outcomes, or the impact of the curriculum. The chosen evaluation model and type should align with the evaluation needs.

Curriculum design, development, and evaluation focus on retaining a curriculum’s relevance, efficacy, effectiveness, and appropriateness in achieving the expected learning outcomes. Selecting the right accreditation body and meeting its evaluation criteria can help ensure its successful implementation. Curriculum developers should know various factors or considerations in curriculum analysis, development, and evaluation. Hence, they can effectively plan and succeed in the entire process.

References

Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing. (2023). https://www.acenursing.org/acen-accreditation-manual-standards-m/

Anwar, S., Supriyat, Y., & Tolla, B. (2019). Evaluation of clinical nursing practice program with preceptorship supervision (Stake’s countenance evaluation model). http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jn.v14i1.13908

Billings, D. M., & Halstead, J. A. (2019). Teaching in the nursing e-book: A Guide for Faculty. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN: 9780323570374

Cahyadi, D., Faturahman, A., Haryani, H., & Dolan, E. (2021). Bcs: Blockchain smart curriculum system for verification student accreditation. International Journal of Cyber and IT Service Management, 1(1), 65-83. https://doi.org/10.34306/ijcitsm.v1i1.20

Cannon, L. M., Coolidge, E. M., LeGierse, J., Moskowitz, Y., Buckley, C., Chapin, E., Warren, M., & Kuzma, E. K. (2020). Trauma-informed education: Creating and pilot testing a nursing curriculum on trauma-informed care. Nurse Education Today, 85, 104256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2019.104256

Collard, S. S., Scammell, J., & Tee, S. (2020). Closing the gap on nurse retention: A scoping review of implications for undergraduate education. Nurse Education Today, 84, 104253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2019.104253

Ford, D. Y., Davis, J. L., Dickson, K. T., Scott, M. F. T., Grantham, T. C., Moore III, J. L., & Taradash, G. D. (2020). Evaluating gifted education programs using an equity-based and culturally responsive checklist to recruit and retain under-represented students of color. Journal of Minority Achievement, Creativity, and Leadership, 1(1), 119–146. https://doi.org/10.5325/minoachicrealead.1.1.0119

Hung, H. Y., Wang, Y. W., Feng, J. Y., Wang, C. J., Lin, E. C., & Chang, Y. J. (2019). Evidence-Based Practice Curriculum Development for Undergraduate Nursing Students: The Preliminary Results of an Action Research Study in Taiwan. The Journal of Nursing Research: JNR, 27(4), e30. https://doi.org/10.1097/jnr.0000000000000298

Ingram, K. M., Espelage, D. L., Merrin, G. J., Valido, A., Heinhorst, J., & Joyce, M. (2019). Evaluation of a virtual reality enhanced bullying prevention curriculum pilot trial. Journal of Adolescence, 71, 72–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.12.006

 Khan, R. A., Spruijt, A., Mahboob, U., & van Merrienboer, J. J. G. (2019). Determining ‘curriculum viability’ through standards and inhibitors of curriculum quality: a scoping review. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 336. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1759-8

Li, S., Ye, X., & Chen, W. (2019). Practice and effectiveness of “nursing case-based learning” course on nursing student’s critical thinking ability: A comparative study. Nurse Education in Practice, 36, 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2019.03.007

Murwaningsih, T., & Fauziah, M. (2023). The Model and Curriculum Development of Nature School. Elementary School Scientific Journal, 7(1), 55-66. https://doi.org/10.23887/jisd.v7i1.55524

Pereira, J., Chary, S., Moat, J. B., Faulkner, J., Gravelle-Ray, N., Carreira, O., Vincze, D., Parsons, G., Riordan, B., Hayawi, L., Tsang, T. W. Y., & Ndoria, L. (2020). Pallium Canada’s Curriculum Development Model: A Framework to Support Large-Scale Courseware Development and Deployment. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 23(6), 759–766. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2019.0292

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Torres-Alzate H. (2019). Nursing Global Health Competencies Framework. Nursing Education Perspectives, 40(5), 295–299. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000558

Weaver, T. E., Lott, S., McMullen, P., Leaver, C. A., Zangaro, G., & Rosseter, R. (2023). Research focused doctoral nursing education in the 21st century: Curriculum, evaluation, and postdoctoral considerations. Journal of Professional Nursing, 44, 38–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2022.11.001

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Assessment 3 Instructions: Curriculum Evaluation
• PRINT
• Create a 15-20 page curriculum evaluation that incorporates the curriculum analysis and course design you created for Assessments 1 and 2.
Introduction
Nurse educators are responsible for many areas of evaluation, including students, curriculum, and program evaluation. Additionally, they have a responsibility to the internal and external stakeholders when it comes to the evaluation process. There are two types of evaluation: summative and formative evaluation. Formative evaluation takes place during the learning process (Billings & Halstead, 2019). Summative evaluation refers to the outcomes of the learning when the learning environment has ended (Billings & Halstead, 2019.)
Reference
Billings, D. M., & Halstead, J. A. (2019). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (6th ed.). Saunders Elsevier.
You will use the work you completed for Assessments 1 and 2 as parts of this assessment. Combine Assessments 1 and 2, and add a section about curriculum evaluation. The evaluation you create should flow smoothly as one cohesive document. When combining the previous assessments, make revisions based on feedback you received from faculty.
Preparation
As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.
• Who should perform curriculum evaluation: individual faculty, a curriculum committee, or full faculty?
• When should curriculum evaluation be done: each semester, each academic year, at the end of a program cohort, or prior to accreditation visits?
• How can a curriculum be revised to ensure that program outcomes are met without compromising the whole curriculum?
• How can a curriculum be revised to reflect changes in society, nursing, health care delivery, health care needs, educational practice, learner diversity, and emerging technology when curriculum revision entails a lengthy process involving state regulations and accreditation standards?
Requirements
Consider curriculum evaluation and address the following:
• Explain the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation, why it is important, and for whom it is important.
• List criteria that are important to consider in curriculum evaluation.
• Explain how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation.
• Provide examples of both short-term and long-term curriculum evaluations for process improvement, and explain why both types are necessary to curriculum development.
• Describe how to apply evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices to improve curriculum development.
• Identify the appropriate accreditation body for a selected curriculum and describe appropriate accreditation evaluation criteria.
o For example, a school of nursing might be accredited by CCNE or ACEN, whereas a hospital staff development program might be accredited by JCAHO, HFAP, or others.
Additional Requirements
To achieve a successful project experience and outcome, you are expected to meet the following requirements:
• Written communication: Written communication is free from errors that detract from the overall message.
• APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting.
• Number of resources: Cite a minimum of five resources that are not included in the resource activities for this assessment.
• Length of evaluation: 15-20 typed double-spaced pages, excluding the title page and the reference page.
• Appendix: Included appropriate material from Assessments 1 and 2. The appendix will not be included in the page count.
• Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Competencies Measured
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
• Competency 1: Examine the development of a curriculum for a nursing program.
o Describe how evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can be applied to improve curriculum development.
• Competency 2: Analyze factors that impact the design of a nursing curriculum.
o List criteria that are important to consider in curriculum evaluation.
• Competency 3: Select an appropriate organizing/curriculum framework for the design of nursing curriculum.
o Explain the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation, including why it is important and for whom it is important.
o Explain how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation.
o Identify the appropriate accreditation body for a selected curriculum and describe appropriate accreditation evaluation criteria.
• Competency 4: Select a curriculum evaluation process that facilitates continuous quality improvement.
o Provide examples of both short-term and long-term evaluations for process improvement, and explain why both types are important to curriculum development.
• Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations of a nursing education professional.
o Apply academic writing skills to incorporate faculty feedback in the creation of a complete, succinct, professionally flowing curriculum design evaluation.
o Write effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.

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Curriculum Evaluation Scoring Guide

CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED
Explain the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation, including why it is important and for whom it is important. Does not explain the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation, including why it is important and for whom it is important. Explains the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation, including why it is important and for whom it is important, but the explanation is incomplete or somehow inadequate. Explains the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation, including why it is important and for whom it is important. Explains the importance of ongoing curriculum evaluation, including why it is important and for whom it is important and provides examples of what can happen when curriculum is not evaluated.
List criteria that are important to consider in curriculum evaluation. Does not list criteria that are important to consider in curriculum evaluation. Lists criteria to consider in curriculum evaluation, but the criteria are not relevant, important, or measurable. Lists criteria that are important to consider in curriculum evaluation. Lists criteria that are important to consider in curriculum evaluation and explains why they are important.
Explain how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation. Does not explain how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation. Explains how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation, but the explanation is incomplete, inaccurate, or somehow inadequate. Explains how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation. Explains how and why pilot testing can be used in curriculum evaluation and provides an example of successful pilot testing.
Provide examples of both short-term and long-term evaluations for process improvement, and explain why both types are important to curriculum development. Does not provide examples of both short-term and long-term evaluations for process improvement, and does not explain why both types are important to curriculum development. Provides an example of either short-term or long-term evaluation for process improvement, but does not provide examples of both, or does not explain why both types are important to curriculum development, or the examples provided are somehow inadequate. Provides examples of both short-term and long-term evaluations for process improvement, and explain why both types are important to curriculum development. Provides examples of both short-term and long-term evaluations for process improvement, and explains why both types are important to curriculum development. Suggests a process for implementing both types of evaluation.
Describe how to apply evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices to improve curriculum development. Does not describe how evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can be applied to improve curriculum development. Describes how evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can be applied to improve curriculum development, but the description is incomplete, unclear, or somehow inadequate. Describes how evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can be applied to improve curriculum development. Describes how evidence-based nursing concepts, theories, and best practices can be applied to improve curriculum development, and provides examples.
Identify the appropriate accreditation body for a selected curriculum and describe appropriate accreditation evaluation criteria. Does not identify the appropriate accreditation body for a selected curriculum or does not describe appropriate accreditation evaluation criteria. Identifies an accreditation body for a selected curriculum and describes accreditation evaluation criteria, but the accreditation body is not appropriate or the evaluation criteria are incomplete or inadequate. Identifies the appropriate accreditation body for a selected curriculum and describes appropriate accreditation evaluation criteria. Identifies the appropriate accreditation body for a selected curriculum and describes appropriate accreditation evaluation criteria. Explains how the results of the evaluation should be applied.
Apply academic writing skills to incorporate faculty feedback in the creation of a complete, succinct, professionally flowing curriculum design evaluation. Does not apply academic writing skills to incorporate faculty feedback in the creation of a complete, succinct, professionally flowing curriculum design evaluation. Applies academic writing skills to incorporate faculty feedback in the creation of a complete, succinct, professionally flowing curriculum design evaluation, but the feedback is inappropriately applied, or the evaluation has multiple errors or flaws. Applies academic writing skills to incorporate faculty feedback in the creation of a complete, succinct, professionally flowing curriculum design evaluation. Applies academic writing skills to incorporate faculty feedback in the creation of a complete, succinct, professionally flowing curriculum design evaluation. Includes appropriate introductory and summary statements.
Write effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting. Does not write effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting. Writes effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting with multiple errors and lapses. Writes effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting. Writes effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting. Supports conclusions by citing relevant sources.

 

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