BIO102 Unit 4 Nervous System Assignment (1) Paper

BIO102 Unit 4 Nervous System Assignment (1) Paper

BIO102 Unit 4 Nervous System Assignment (1) Paper

Anatomy of The Nervous System- Neuron
The neuron is composed of the cell body, dendrites, and an axon.The dendrites receive signals from other cells, the cell body organizes and maintains the cell function while the axons conduct action potential to adjacent connected neurons (Azarfar et al., 2018). At rest, there is an electrical potential difference across the membrane (resting potential). The action potential is propagated along the axon in a self-regenerating manner. Salutatory conduction also occurs due to the presence of myelin sheath. At the end of an impulse, neurotransmitters are released; at the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is released and binds to its receptors.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
BIO102 Unit 4 Nervous System Assignment (1) Paper
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay


Components of Subcortical Structures
a) Thalamus: The thalamus serves as a relay station for sensory information coming from the peripheral nervous system and sends it to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex for further processing V. It also regulates consciousness, attention, and sleep.
b) Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is responsible for maintaining homeostasis and regulating a variety of essential functions, including body temperature, hunger and thirst, sleep-wake cycles, and the release of hormones from the pituitary gland (Dai et al., 2022). It also regulates emotional responses and sexual behavior.
c) Basal Ganglia: The basal ganglia is involved in the control of voluntary movement, procedural learning, and habit formation. It receives input from the cerebral cortex and help to initiate and regulate motor activities, suppress unwanted movements, and coordinate motor sequences.
d) Amygdala: Is involved in processing emotions, particularly fear and aggression. It plays a role in recognizing and interpreting emotional stimuli and is crucial for the formation and storage of emotional memories. It also interacts with other brain regions to modulate emotional responses and regulate social behavior.
e) Hippocampus: Is essential for the formation and consolidation of new memories, particularly declarative memories (facts and events). It plays a critical role in spatial navigation and episodic memory, allowing us to remember specific events and experiences (Dai et al., 2022). It also interacts with other brain regions to support learning and memory processes.
f) Cerebellum: Is primarily involved in coordinating voluntary movements, maintaining posture, and balance. It receives sensory input from various sources and integrates it with motor commands from the cerebral cortex to ensure smooth and accurate movements. The cerebellum also contributes to motor learning and the automation of motor skills (Dai et al., 2022). In addiction, it is connected to reward pathways in the brain and is affected by drug abuse.
Neurotransmitters in Nigra Striatal Region
Dopamine and acetylcholine are the key neurotransmitters in the substantia nigra. Dopamine is involved in reward, motivation, and movement, and dysfunction in the dopaminergic pathway results in Parkinson’s disease. Cholinergic neurons produce acetylcholine which is crucial for muscle control and coordination.
Role of the Glial cells
Glia cells are non-neuronal cells that play crucial roles in the CNS. They provide support, protection, and maintenance functions for neurons. They are classified into several types: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal.Astrocytes form a structural framework in the CNS and regulate the extracellular environment by controlling ion and neurotransmitter concentrations and also play a role in forming the blood-brain barrier (Allen et al., 2018).The microglial cells are the brain’s defense system and phagocytize pathogens.
The structure of the Synapses
In the synapse, neurons communicate with each other through the release and reception of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers stored in vesicles at the end of the presynaptic neuron. When an action potential reaches the neuron’s end, it triggers neurotransmitters’ release into the synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse and bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, transmitting the signal (Andreae & Burrone, 2018). This communication occurs in one direction, from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic neuron.
Neuroplasticity of the brain
Neuroplasticity is the brain’s remarkable ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between neurons and altering existing ones. It is the foundation of our brain’s capacity to learn, adapt, and recover from injury or change. Neuroplasticity allows the brain to continuously rewire itself in response to experiences, learning, and environmental influences (Baroncelli & Lunghi, 2021). For instance, in the case of learning a new skill, such as playing an instrument, repeated practice strengthens the connections between the relevant neurons involved in motor control and auditory processing.

Allen, N. J., & Lyons, D. A. (2018). Glia as architects of central nervous system formation and function. Science (New York, N.Y.), 362(6411), 181–185.
Andreae, L. C., & Burrone, J. (2018). The role of spontaneous neurotransmission in synapse and circuit development. Journal of neuroscience research, 96(3), 354–359.
Azarfar, A., Calcini, N., Huang, C., Zeldenrust, F., & Celikel, T. (2018). Neural coding: A single neuron’s perspective. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 94, 238–247.
Baroncelli, L., & Lunghi, C. (2021). Neuroplasticity of the visual cortex: in sickness and in health. Experimental neurology, 335, 113515.
Dai, Z. H., Xu, X., Chen, W. Q., Nie, L. N., Liu, Y., Sui, N., & Liang, J. (2022). The role of the hippocampus in memory reactivation: an implication for a therapeutic target against opioid use disorder. Current addiction reports, 9(2), 67–79.


In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.

Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):

What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?

Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?

What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?

In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.

The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.

In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Proscholarly
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Good work. Will be placing another order tomorrow
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
The absolute best ! Thanks for great communication, quality papers, and amazing time delivery!
Customer 452467, November 14th, 2022
Well researched paper. Excellent work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Very fond of the paper written. The topic chosen is defiantly trending at this time
Customer 452495, July 27th, 2023
Great work, Thank you, will come back with more work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
This was done very well. Thank you!
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat