BIO102 Unit 4 Nervous System Assignment (1) Paper

BIO102 Unit 4 Nervous System Assignment (1) Paper

BIO102 Unit 4 Nervous System Assignment (1) Paper

Anatomy of The Nervous System- Neuron
The neuron is composed of the cell body, dendrites, and an axon.The dendrites receive signals from other cells, the cell body organizes and maintains the cell function while the axons conduct action potential to adjacent connected neurons (Azarfar et al., 2018). At rest, there is an electrical potential difference across the membrane (resting potential). The action potential is propagated along the axon in a self-regenerating manner. Salutatory conduction also occurs due to the presence of myelin sheath. At the end of an impulse, neurotransmitters are released; at the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is released and binds to its receptors.

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Components of Subcortical Structures
a) Thalamus: The thalamus serves as a relay station for sensory information coming from the peripheral nervous system and sends it to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex for further processing V. It also regulates consciousness, attention, and sleep.
b) Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is responsible for maintaining homeostasis and regulating a variety of essential functions, including body temperature, hunger and thirst, sleep-wake cycles, and the release of hormones from the pituitary gland (Dai et al., 2022). It also regulates emotional responses and sexual behavior.
c) Basal Ganglia: The basal ganglia is involved in the control of voluntary movement, procedural learning, and habit formation. It receives input from the cerebral cortex and help to initiate and regulate motor activities, suppress unwanted movements, and coordinate motor sequences.
d) Amygdala: Is involved in processing emotions, particularly fear and aggression. It plays a role in recognizing and interpreting emotional stimuli and is crucial for the formation and storage of emotional memories. It also interacts with other brain regions to modulate emotional responses and regulate social behavior.
e) Hippocampus: Is essential for the formation and consolidation of new memories, particularly declarative memories (facts and events). It plays a critical role in spatial navigation and episodic memory, allowing us to remember specific events and experiences (Dai et al., 2022). It also interacts with other brain regions to support learning and memory processes.
f) Cerebellum: Is primarily involved in coordinating voluntary movements, maintaining posture, and balance. It receives sensory input from various sources and integrates it with motor commands from the cerebral cortex to ensure smooth and accurate movements. The cerebellum also contributes to motor learning and the automation of motor skills (Dai et al., 2022). In addiction, it is connected to reward pathways in the brain and is affected by drug abuse.
Neurotransmitters in Nigra Striatal Region
Dopamine and acetylcholine are the key neurotransmitters in the substantia nigra. Dopamine is involved in reward, motivation, and movement, and dysfunction in the dopaminergic pathway results in Parkinson’s disease. Cholinergic neurons produce acetylcholine which is crucial for muscle control and coordination.
Role of the Glial cells
Glia cells are non-neuronal cells that play crucial roles in the CNS. They provide support, protection, and maintenance functions for neurons. They are classified into several types: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal.Astrocytes form a structural framework in the CNS and regulate the extracellular environment by controlling ion and neurotransmitter concentrations and also play a role in forming the blood-brain barrier (Allen et al., 2018).The microglial cells are the brain’s defense system and phagocytize pathogens.
The structure of the Synapses
In the synapse, neurons communicate with each other through the release and reception of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers stored in vesicles at the end of the presynaptic neuron. When an action potential reaches the neuron’s end, it triggers neurotransmitters’ release into the synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse and bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, transmitting the signal (Andreae & Burrone, 2018). This communication occurs in one direction, from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic neuron.
Neuroplasticity of the brain
Neuroplasticity is the brain’s remarkable ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between neurons and altering existing ones. It is the foundation of our brain’s capacity to learn, adapt, and recover from injury or change. Neuroplasticity allows the brain to continuously rewire itself in response to experiences, learning, and environmental influences (Baroncelli & Lunghi, 2021). For instance, in the case of learning a new skill, such as playing an instrument, repeated practice strengthens the connections between the relevant neurons involved in motor control and auditory processing.

References
Allen, N. J., & Lyons, D. A. (2018). Glia as architects of central nervous system formation and function. Science (New York, N.Y.), 362(6411), 181–185. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat0473
Andreae, L. C., & Burrone, J. (2018). The role of spontaneous neurotransmission in synapse and circuit development. Journal of neuroscience research, 96(3), 354–359. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24154
Azarfar, A., Calcini, N., Huang, C., Zeldenrust, F., & Celikel, T. (2018). Neural coding: A single neuron’s perspective. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 94, 238–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.09.007
Baroncelli, L., & Lunghi, C. (2021). Neuroplasticity of the visual cortex: in sickness and in health. Experimental neurology, 335, 113515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113515
Dai, Z. H., Xu, X., Chen, W. Q., Nie, L. N., Liu, Y., Sui, N., & Liang, J. (2022). The role of the hippocampus in memory reactivation: an implication for a therapeutic target against opioid use disorder. Current addiction reports, 9(2), 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-022-00407-w

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In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.

Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):

What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?

Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?

What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?

In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.

The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.

In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

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