Assignment: Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Paper

Assignment: Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Paper

Assignment: Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Paper

Research Critique Guidelines-Part II

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Quantitative Studies

Studies (Ma et al., 2021; Yu et al., 2022; Borges et al. 2019) assert that compassion fatigue is a prevalent issue among nurses working in adult emergency and critical care units. Compassion fatigue among registered nurses in the emergency department emanates from the emotional and physical demands associated with working in these areas. Compassion fatigue leads to high nurse turnover that exacerbates the current nursing shortage in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this paper is to critique two quantitative research articles on compassion fatigue as a critical healthcare issue affecting nurses in dealing with adult patients in emergency departments or units.

PICOT Question

Among gerontology nurses working in the emergency department (P), does a compassion fatigue management program (I), compared to no program (C) on nurses, lower the rate of compassion fatigue by 50% (O) with two months (T)?

Background of Studies

The first article by Borges et al. (2019) explores the issue of compassion fatigue experienced by nurses in adult emergency settings. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of compassion fatigue among nurses and its differences based on sociodemographic and professional features. Using a quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional design, the article’s research question is “What are the levels of compassion fatigue among nurses and its variation based on professional attributes and socio-demographics? The study is significant to nursing as it demonstrates the need for health promotion approaches to deal with the problem.

The second article by Yu et al. (2022) focuses on compassion fatigue and its relationship with burnout and compassion satisfaction among nurses in emergency care settings. The article is significant to nursing as it shows that emergency nurses experience increased levels of both compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction that have an impact on burnout and even nurse turnover rates. The article’s objective was to verify a hypothesized approach about the interaction between compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction and associated influencing factors and effects in emergency nurses. The possible research question for the article is, “What is the relationship between compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction and their influencing factors and effects among emergency care nurses?

How Do These Two Articles Support the Nursing Practice Problem You Chose?

The two articles will be critical to answering the PICOT question by demonstrating the effects of compassion fatigue on emergency nurses and effective health promotion strategies to deal with the issue. For instance, Yu et al. (2022) are categorical that professional psychological intervention and reforms in the emergency nursing framework are important in addressing the issue of compassion fatigue as it influences burnout and negatively affects compassion satisfaction.

The interventions and comparison groups in the two articles are similar to those identified in the PICOT question. In their article, Borges et al. (2019) assert the need for more research and understanding of the phenomenon to help institutions develop health promotion strategies through targeted programs like stress management. Again, Yu et al. (2022) opine that social support can help nurses deal with compassion fatigue leading to reduced turnover intention among the affected nurses in the emergency department.

The PICOT question identifies the compassion fatigue program as an evidence-based practice intervention to understanding the issue and developing appropriate strategies based on the care settings. The PICOT question advances that such a program should have integrated approaches and activities to reduce the negative effects of fatigue and burnout in such settings. The two article use cohorts that do not benefit from such programs to compare the overall benefits of these interventions in the emergency department.

Method of Studies

The two articles use different but related methods of study. In their article, Yu et al. (2022) a descriptive cross-section design. On their part, Borges et al. (2019) use a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional approach. The implication is that the two approaches differ in their data analysis model. Borges et al. (2019) analyzed data using both inferential and descriptive statistics while Yu et al. (2021) used descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, Yu et al. (2022) employed a path analysis to evaluate the model’s fitness and its effects; both direct and indirect.

Cross-sectional studies are effective in proving or disproving certain assumptions or hypotheses. For example, Yu et al. (2022) evaluate the hypothesized model of the relationship between compassion fatigue and burnout among nurses in the emergency department. The findings are not explicit that compassion fatigue is the main cause of burnout among these nurses. However, it contributes but there is a need for more research to prove its overall influence on burnout. Conversely, a core limitation of the cross-sectional study model is that it cannot be used to determine the cause and effects of a phenomenon.

Results of Studies

The two studies make significant findings about the problem that they explore. In their findings, Yu et al. (2022) opine that compassion fatigue inversely affects burnout while compassion satisfaction has a positive effect on compassion fatigue. The study also found that social support enhances compassion satisfaction and protects nurses from compassion fatigue. The authors also assert that compassion fatigue has a direct effect on mental health. Again, the three dimensions, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout all affect the turnover intention among nurses. Borges et al. (2019) found that nurses with elevated levels of burnout and secondary traumatic stress experienced compassion fatigue. The article also found that individual factors like age, job experience, gender, and leisure activities influence compassion fatigue.

These two articles have significant implications for nursing practice. Firstly, they demonstrate that compassion fatigue is a growing issue that requires effective interventions. Secondly, the article offers nursing practice strategies to address compassion fatigue that occurs in emergency settings (Reynolds et al., 2022). Thirdly, these articles implore stakeholders, especially emergency nurses and healthcare organizations to develop effective promotional interventions to address the issue of compassion fatigue to enhance the performance of nurses.

Ethical Considerations

Ethical considerations are essential in conducting acceptable research and maintaining the integrity of the findings. The first ethical consideration is informed consent where the participants accept to be part of the study without any undue influence or coercion. The second ethical consideration is the privacy and confidentiality of the participant’s personal information and data. Under this ethical consideration, researchers are mandated not to disclose the names of their participants. Non-disclosure of these names ensures that participants are not harmed psychologically for being subjects in such studies.

The researchers in the two articles considered these ethical considerations while conducting their investigation. For example, Yu et al. (2022) assert that no conflict of interest exists in their article and that they complied with all ethical requirements. Again, Borges et al. (2019) followed these provisions as they do not disclose the names of the participating nurses in the research. The implication is that the articles maintain the integrity of their research findings.


Compassion fatigue among emergency nurses is a rising concern that affects the overall delivery of quality care. Besides, it leads to high nurse turnover, especially when dealing with adults in emergency settings. Having evidence-based interventions like programs on stress management and related aspects can help reduce compassion fatigue. The studies emphasize the need for creating awareness about this issue and developing promotional strategies in emergency departments to address the problem. The studies are also categorical that compassion fatigue influences burnout, affecting the overall performance of affected nurses.


Borges, E. M. D. N., Fonseca, C. I. N. D. S., Baptista, P. C. P., Queirós, C. M. L., Baldonedo-

Mosteiro, M., & Mosteiro-Diaz, M. P. (2019). Compassion fatigue among nurses working in an adult emergency and urgent care unit. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem, 27. DOI: 10.1590/1518-8345.2973.3175

Ma, H., Huang, S. Q., We, B., & Zhong, Y. (2022). Compassion fatigue, burnout, compassion

satisfaction and depression among emergency department physicians and nurses: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 12(4), e055941.

Reynolds, K. A., Harikumar, V. B., Poon, E., West, D. P., & Alam, M. (2022). While ethical

considerations predominate, scientific merit can impact Institutional Review Board (IRB) determinations: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 150, 12-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2022.06.009.

Yu, H., & Gui, L. (2022). Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among

emergency nurses: A path analysis. Journal of advanced nursing, 78(5), 1294-1304.


In this assignment, you will write a critical appraisal that demonstrates comprehension of two quantitative research studies.

Use the practice problem and two quantitative, peer-reviewed research articles you identified in the Topic 1 assignment (or two new articles based on instructor feedback in Topic 1) to complete this assignment.

In a 1,000–1,250-word essay, summarize two quantitative studies.

Use the “Research Critique Guidelines – Part II” document to organize your essay.

You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.

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