Assignment; NURS 6630: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology full course

Assignment; NURS 6630: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology full course

Assignment; NURS 6630: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology full course

NUR6630 Assignment 1- Short Answer    

  1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.

The human nervous system is a complex network of neurons that acts as the principal conduit for information production, modification, and transmission to and from numerous parts of the human body (Teufel & Fletcher, 2020). Dendrites, an axon, and the cell body, sometimes referred to as the soma, are the three major components that are responsible for the formation of a neuron. Electrical conduction is the mechanism that enables nerve impulses to travel swiftly inside a neuron. This is because electrical conduction takes place. It starts with a momentary electrical fluctuation that proceeds up the dendrites of the neuron, then progresses through the cell body of the neuron, and eventually arrives at the terminal point of the neuron’s axon.           

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Assignment; NURS 6630: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology full course
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE ON; Assignment; NURS 6630: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology full course

  1. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):            
    • What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
  • Thalamus: is a structure of the diencephalon composed of paired gray matter that may be found close to the center of the brain. It is located above the middle brain, also known as the mesencephalon, which makes it possible for nerve fibers to link to the cerebral cortex in all directions. The inter thalamic adhesion allows one thalamus to connect to the other (Bazin et al., 2020).
  • Basal Ganglia: is a collection of nuclei that may be discovered deep into the neocortex of the brain (Stahl, 2021). Although it is engaged in a variety of activities connected to reward and cognition, the primary one that it plays is in the regulation of movement.
  • Hippocampus: an elevated convex region of the gray matter located in the inferior temporal horn of the lateral ventricle’s parahippocampal gyrus (Bazin et al., 2020). It may be explained more comprehensively as a cortical sheet that curves and recurves and folds into the medial surface of the temporal lobe.
  • Amygdala: the region of the brain that controls emotions, memories, and the flight-or-fight reflex. Near the base of the brain, there are two almond-shaped cell clusters (Bazin et al., 2020). The amygdalae (plural), sometimes referred to as the amygdaloid complex, are a crucial component of the limbic system.
  • Nucleus Accumbens: is a crucial basal ganglia input structure that integrates data from cortical and limbic areas to influence goal-directed actions (Bazin et al., 2020).
    • Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
      • The hippocampus is a complex neural structure located within the temporal lobe that plays a crucial role in memory consolidation and learning processes (Bazin et al., 2020).
      • Three regions of the brain, the extended amygdala, the basal ganglia, and the prefrontal cortex, have been implicated in the beginning, development, and maintenance of addiction, according to strong scientific evidence (Bazin et al., 2020).        
    • What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
      • Acetylcholine
      • Dopamine (Bazin et al., 2020).
  1. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glial cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.

The glial cells present in the central nervous system are responsible for regulating neurotransmission and aiding in the development of the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, they facilitate the coordination of nerve impulses, facilitate the elimination of non-functional neurons, and regulate brain metabolism (Stahl, 2021). Microglia, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, radial glia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes all play a role in the development of the nervous system, including the birth, migration, and growth of neurons as well as circuit building and synaptogenesis (Hanani & Verkhratsky, 2021). Various types of glial cells are crucial in regulating synaptic connectivity, maintaining stability, facilitating adaptability, and modulating network-level activity during the maturation of neural circuits through continuous monitoring and modification of the structure and function of the central nervous system.

  1. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.

Chemical synapses convey messages from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron by releasing chemical neurotransmitters. The synaptic cleft, a 40 nm gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes, separates the two cells (Heerdegen et al., 2021). Depolarization from the action potential’s arrival causes voltage-sensitive Ca+2 channels on the presynaptic side of the cleft to open, allowing calcium ions to flood the area and fusing vesicles containing neurotransmitters with the presynaptic cell membrane, discharging the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitters attach to neurotransmitter-specific locations on channels on the postsynaptic terminal as they diffuse across the cleft on the postsynaptic side.    

  1. In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

Neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to adapt to new experiences, developmental changes, sensory stimulation, disability, or malfunction by forming new connections and altering previously established ones (Ho & King, 2021). While it may seem that certain brain areas are responsible for particular neural activities, it is becoming clear that neural networks, in particular, exhibit modularity and execute specialized tasks while retaining the flexibility to depart from their regular functions and rebuild themselves. Synaptic plasticity is a term used to describe the various activity-dependent mechanisms that allow neurons to alter the strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission. The alterations facilitate the proper functioning of learning and memory processes, while aberrations in their operation have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions.

References

Bazin, P.-L., Alkemade, A., Mulder, M. J., Henry, A. G., & Forstmann, B. U. (2020). Multi-contrast anatomical subcortical structures parcellation. ELife9. https://doi.org/10.7554/elife.59430

Hanani, M., & Verkhratsky, A. (2021). Satellite Glial Cells and Astrocytes, a Comparative Review. Neurochemical Research46(10), 2525–2537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03255-8

Heerdegen, M., Zwar, M., Franz, D., Hörnschemeyer, J., Neubert, V., Plocksties, F., Niemann, C., Timmermann, D., Bahls, C., van Rienen, U., Paap, M., Perl, S., Lüttig, A., Richter, A., & Köhling, R. (2021). Mechanisms of pallidal deep brain stimulation: Alteration of cortico-striatal synaptic communication in a dystonia animal model. Neurobiology of Disease154, 105341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2021.105341

Ho, T. C., & King, L. S. (2021). Mechanisms of neuroplasticity linking early adversity to depression: developmental considerations. Translational Psychiatry11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01639-6

Stahl, S. M. (2021). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (5th Ed.) Cambridge University Press.

Teufel, C., & Fletcher, P. C. (2020). Forms of prediction in the nervous system. Nature Reviews Neuroscience21(4), 231–242. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-020-0275-5

BUY A CUSTOM PAPER HERE ON; Assignment; NURS 6630: Psychopharmalogical Approaches to Treat Psychopathology full course

As a psychiatric and mental health nurse practitioner, before you can recommend potential pharmacotherapeutics to address a patient’s condition or disorder, you must understand the basic function and structure of the neuron and central nervous system. For this Assignment, you will review and apply your understanding of neuroanatomy by addressing a set of short answer prompts.

To Prepare:

  • Review the Learning Resources for this week in preparation to complete this Assignment.
  • Reflect on the basic function and structure of the neuron in relation to the central nervous system.
  • Reflect on the inter-connectedness between neurons and the central nervous system, including the pathway and distribution of electrical impulses.
  • Reflect on how neurons communicate with each other and review the concept of neuroplasticity.

(references 5-)

Address the following Short Answer prompts for your Assignment. Be sure to include references to the Learning Resources for this week.

  1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.
  2. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
    • What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
    • Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
    • What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
  3. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.
  4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.
  5. In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.
  • Stahl, S. M. (2021). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (5th Ed.) Cambridge University Press.
    • Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”  (pp. 1-28)

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Proscholarly
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Medicine
Very fond of the paper written. The topic chosen is defiantly trending at this time
Customer 452495, July 27th, 2023
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NURSE ADVOCATE HEALTHCARE PROGRAM
The absolute best ! Thanks for great communication, quality papers, and amazing time delivery!
Customer 452467, November 14th, 2022
Medicine
Great work, Thank you, will come back with more work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Good work. Will be placing another order tomorrow
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
This was done very well. Thank you!
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
Medicine
Well researched paper. Excellent work
Customer 452441, November 11th, 2022
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat