ANP 652 Week 12 Viral, Fungal, and Bacterial Infections of the Lung Essay

ANP 652 Week 12 Viral, Fungal, and Bacterial Infections of the Lung Essay

ANP 652 Week 12 Viral, Fungal, and Bacterial Infections of the Lung Essay

Viral, Fungal, and Bacterial Infections of the Lung
Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease primarily affecting the lung parenchyma. The primary infectious agent is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast aerobic rod. The risk factors for TB transmission include Close contact with someone with active TB; Immunocompromised status; Substance abuse; Pre-existing medical conditions; Institutionalization; Living in overcrowded, substandard housing. Most patients have a low-grade fever, cough, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. The cough may be nonproductive, or mucopurulent sputum may be expectorated. Hemoptysis may occur. Diagnostic tests for TB include a Tuberculin skin test, Chest x-ray, acid-fast bacillus smear, and sputum culture (Suárez et al., 2019). First-line pharmacological treatment includes four medications: Isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol.

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Mycoplasma Infections include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which causes pneumonia that runs atypical courses. Humans are the only source of infection. The pathogens are transmitted by droplet infection during close contact. The cells attach themselves to the epithelia of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. The infection develops into pneumonia with an inflammatory exudate in the lumens of the bronchi and bronchioles (Metsälä et al., 2021). M. pneumoniae infection manifests with fever, headache, and a persistent cough. Mycoplasma Infections can be diagnosed by culture growth or antibody assays. The antibiotics of choice are tetracycline and macrolides. Mycoplasmas show high levels of natural resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics.
Bronchiectasis s a chronic lung disease. It is caused by a cycle of infection and inflammation that causes permanent structural damage to the small airways and sometimes destruction of adjacent lung parenchyma. Various underlying conditions, including genetic abnormalities, immunologic disorders, autoimmune diseases, obstructing airway lesions, or chronic aspiration, cause bronchiectasis. Clinical features of a bronchiectasis exacerbation include cough, purulent sputum breathlessness, excise tolerance, fatigue/malaise, and hemoptysis (O’Donnell, 2018). A high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan is the“gold standard” for diagnosing bronchiectasis and confirming the extent of the disease. Pharmacologic therapy includes anti-inflammatory agents and maintenance antibiotics. Non-pharmacologic therapy includes nutrition and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
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References
Metsälä, R., Ala-Korpi, S., Rannikko, J., Helminen, M., & Renko, M. (2021). Mycoplasma pneumoniae may cause dyspnoea and hospitalisations in young healthy adults. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, 40(7), 1427–1431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-021-04171-z
O’Donnell, A. E. (2018). Medical management of bronchiectasis. Journal of thoracic disease, 10(Suppl 28), S3428–S3435. https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.09.39
Suárez, I., Fünger, S. M., Kröger, S., Rademacher, J., Fätkenheuer, G., & Rybniker, J. (2019). The Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis. Deutsches Arzteblatt international, 116(43), 729–735. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2019.0729

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You are an AGACNP practicing as a hospitalist nurse practitioner in a 200-bed community hospital. You have pulmonology and critical care consultant teams available, as well as a 15-bed critical care unit. You are tasked with admitting a patient with a chief complaint of a complex acute, critical, and chronic pulmonology state.

Summarize the pathology, etiology, modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors, pertinent signs and symptoms, anticipated acid-base derangements, diagnostics, treatment regimens to include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological, and nutritional and environmental interventions for one of the following. Try not to post duplicate posts on the same subject. Support your summary and recommendations plan with a minimum of two APRN-approved scholarly resources.

Acute and Chronic Lung Failure

Obstructive Lung Disease

Restrictive Lung Disease

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Drug-Induced Pulmonary Toxicities

Pneumonia

Viral, Fungal, and Bacterial Infections of the Lung, including TB, Mycoplasma Infections, and Bronchiectasis

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